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Flashcards in Learning + Memory Deck (122)
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1

Memory Definition

a change in behaviour brought by expierence (the changed neural wiring)

2

Learning Defintion

the process by which memory is acquired
forming of asoociations and rewriign of neruons

3

3 key processes of memory

encoding
storage
retrieval

4

what is encoding

active process of selecting and summarizaing/writing sensory information into sensory stages (bringing memories into storage)

5

what is storage

funcional and atomical sub-systems where memory is retained

6

what is retrieval

active process of reconstructing information according to current needs

7

what is the simplest memory idea and what are its issues

storage of an entire perceptual uni

("remember everything"; no clear reasons why we have to remember everything as its INEFFECTIE and COSTLY)

8

how does learning in neurons occur

by long-term potentation

9

common metaphors for memory

wax tabular
book
computer

10

theory of neural computation

neurons weight incoming signals according to the rules each has learned and fire as a result if a threshold has been reached


A NEURON BALANCES EXTICTATORY + INHIBITOTRY SIGNALS FROM MULTIPLE SOURCES TO DECIDE A COURSE OF ACTION

11

how is an action potential fired

the dendrites; collect electrical signals

the cell body: integrates the signals and forms input to output

axons= pass the electrical signals to the dendries of another cell

if the other cell gets excited= it fires and sends signal downcell

12

are signals on neurons fixed?

nope! modullated by weights (some neurons have a stronger influence on the central neuron than others)

13

what did donald hebb proporse

hebbs rule

14

Hebbs Rule

'neurons that fire together wire together'; strength increases between neurons that fire/connet more

15

explain hebbs rule

strength of a connectino between two neurons can change depending on the frequeuncy that neuron is stimulated

16

apply hebbs rule to pavlovs dog experiment

connectinn occurs between the bell (conditioned stimulus) and the salivary response (conditionited response) due to repeated firing together

--> the dog 'learns' that the bell predicts food

17

what did Bliss & Lomo 2973 do

confirmed hebbs rule experimentally using rabbits

18

BLISS + LOMO experiment

placed electrons into the pre/post synaptic neurons in the hippocampus of a rabbit:

stimulated the PREsynaptic electron and recordered the output in the post synaptic electrode

found that a change in membranbe potential was reached as forced firing made connections stronger

19

long term potentation

pre-sypnaptic (input) neurons become more effective after repeated high-frequency stimulation

20

Key Researchers of Learning

Pavolv + Classiical Conditioning

Thormdike + Law of Effect

J.b. Watson and Behaviourist Manifesto

BG Skinner and Operant Contioning

21

what is classifical conditioning

a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired: a response which is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone.

22

what is an unconditionited stimulus

something that automatically elecits a response

23

what is an unconditionited response

the reflexive resonse

24

what is a conditionted stimulus

some inititially behaviourally neutral thing

25

what is a conditionted response

same as the uncondiionted response but now in response to the conditionted stimulus

26

explain the phases of the learning curve

in regarsd to the strength of a condtiointed response:
1. increases with increased pairing/acquistioing

2. decreases if stimuli is less unpaired leadining to extinction

3. however partial recovery is faster (allows for stimulus to return after a break)

27

explain pavlovs dog experiment

UC= food

NS= belll

UR= Salivation

C= food and bell

After= bell becomes conditiontied stimulus to cause drooling in the dog

28

what is operant conditionign

a learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment

by b.f. skinner

29

what did B.F Skinner do to study learning and what was his aim

aim= influence of rewards and punishments on learning

studied= developed a box to stick rats/pideons in whereby rewards/punishments were given (electrical shocks or food)

30

Positive vs Negative Reinforcenment

positive= something is added

negative= something is taken away