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Flashcards in FFP - MULTIPLE DWELLINGS Deck (174)
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Old Law Tenements are multiple dwellings built before 4/12/01. These buildings are 3-7 stories in height, 20' to 25' wide, 50' to 85' deep. Which one of the following is an incorrect description of these buildings?

A) Class 3 non fireproof construction (brick walls, wood floor beams and wood floors). Steel columns and beams will not be found in OLTs, including buildings that have been renovated.

B) Originally the stairs and stairway enclosures were wood with wood lath and plaster partitions. In 1934 most of these buildings were required to fire retard the stairway enclosure.

C) Two means of egress from each apartment almost always consisting of an interior stairway and a fire escape. To provide light and air to each room, shafts of different shapes and sizes are provided between adjoining buildings.

D) Stairway to the cellar is located inside the building, usually beneath the interior stairway.

A) Class 3 non fireproof construction (brick walls, wood floor beams and wood floors). Steel columns and beams will not be found in OLTs, including buildings that have been renovated. (INCORRECT)

* You may find steel in RENOVATED OLTs. (Sec 2.1, FFP Tenements 7.2.6)

1

FDNY Firefighting Procedure Bulletins often begin by reinforcing the provisions of FDNY Procedures dealing with the Safety Team (two in, two out). Which one of the following choices is incorrect concerning these procedures?

A) When a fire progresses past the incipient stage, the fire area must be
considered an IDLH atmosphere.

B) Every member entering an IDLH must be equipped with PPE and an
SCBA.

C) No member shall enter an IDLH unless the member teams up with at
least one other member and remains within voice and visual contact
with that member.

D) If a known life hazard is found and immediate action could prevent
the loss of life, appropriate action (rescue activity) may be taken by
the individual member. If such action is taken, the IC must be
immediately notified and appropriate adjustments made.

C) No member shall enter an IDLH unless the member teams up with at least one other member and remains within voice and visual contact with that member. (INCORRECT)

(FFP-MDS 1.1.4)

* Member must remain within voice OR visual contact (doesn't have to
be both)

2

New Law Tenements are multiple dwellings built after 4/12/1901. These buildings are larger than OLTs and usually contain several apartments on each floor. NLTs are generally 6 or 7 stories in height, 35' to 50' wide, 85' deep, with 5 to 6 apartments per floor. Of the following choices, which one does not correctly describe NLTs?

A) The 1st floor (cellar ceiling) is of fireproof construction and unpierced

B) The entrance to the cellar is by way of an exterior stair.

C) The interior stairs are fireproof and enclosed in partitions of fireproof construction.

D) All interior walls and furred partitions are required to be fire stopped at each story.

E) Steel "I" beams were introduced to carry floor joists which couldn't span enlarged floor areas. These steel beams generally were supported by steel columns.

E) Steel "I" beams were introduced to carry floor joists which couldn't span enlarged floor areas. These steel beams generally were supported by steel columns. (INCORRECT)

* Steel beams in NLTs were generally supported by MASONRY WALLS
(FFP MDS 2.2.1)

3

Newer types of NLTs erected between 1916 and 1929 included several features that distinguished them from earlier NLTs. These buildings had a much larger floor area (150' x 200') than the earlier NLTs. Which one of the following features of these buildings is described correctly?

A) To avoid being required to be built of fireproof construction, the floor areas were broken up into units of 3000 square feet or less. This means that between some apartments there are brick or fireproof partitions which effectively limit the horizontal spread of fire.

B) These brick or fireproof dividing walls only go as high as the underside of the roof boards. This results in a very large undivided Cockloft area.

C) Protected steel beams are used to support some of the wood floor joists. These steel beams are supported by vertical steel columns which run the height of the building.

D) Wooden floor joists (beams) run horizontally from brick wall to a steel girder or from a steel girder to a steel girder.

E) Entrance to the basement is by a front door at that level via an exterior stair from the first floor, or through a passageway located in the rear of the building.

D) Wooden floor joists (beams) run horizontally from brick wall to a steel girder or from a steel girder to a steel girder.

(FFP MDS 2.2.2)

A - Up to 1929 floor areas broken up to units of 2500 SQ OR LESS

B - Dividing walls go as high as the CEILING OF TOP FLOOR

C - UNPROTECTED steel beams are used to support

E - Entrance to basement = SIDE OR REAR DOOR or through a passageway located in FRONT of the building.

4

After 4/18/29 the Class "A" apartment type of multiple dwelling were no longer called "tenements" and became known as "apartment houses." It must be emphasized that no matter what protection a law provides, it cannot be depended upon entirely in these NFP buildings due to renovations, settling of the building, shoddy workmanship originally or repair work. Which of the following is correct concerning protection found in Class "A" multiple dwellings built after 4/18/29?

A) A NFP building constructed in 1935 would have firewalls required to be carried to the top of the roof boards and the size of the area enclosed by fire walls is 3000 square feet.

B) A NFP building constructed in 1941 would have firewalls required to be carried to the underside of the roof boards and the size of the area enclosed by fire walls is 2500 sq feet.

C) A NFP building constructed in 1930 would have firewalls required to be carried to the underside of the roof boards and the size of the area enclosed by fire walls is 3000 sq feet.

D) A NFP building constructed in 1933 would have firewalls required to the top of the roof boards and the size of the area enclosed by fire walls is 2500 sq feet.

C) A NFP building constructed in 1930 would have firewalls required to be carried to the underside of the roof boards and the size of the area enclosed by fire walls is 3000 sq feet.

"CUT"

Prior to 4/18/29 - as high as top floor (C)eiling

Between 1930 and 1940 - firewalls carried to (U)nderside of roof boards

After 1940 - firewalls carried to the (T)op of roof boards

Prior to 4/18/29 floor areas broken up into 2500 sq feet or less.

After 4/18/29 floor areas broken up into 3000 sq ft or less.

A - 1935 underside of roof boards
B - 1941 top of roof boards / 3000 sq feet
C - Correct
D - 1933 underside / 3000 sq feet

5

Engine operations are similar in OLTs, NLTs and NFP Class A MDS erected after 4/18/29. Which is the only correct choice concerning engine operations in these buildings?

A) The front suction inlet is not to be used in order to ensure that arriving ladder apparatus are not blocked out.

B) In most cases, the first line is stretched via the interior stairs to the location of the fire. An exception to stretching the first line up the interior stairs may be made when flame is issuing from windows opening onto the fire escape and endangering people trying to come down the fire escape. In this case, the first line may be operated from the street to protect people on the fire escape.

C) If the entrance door to the building is self closing and equipped with a locking device the first officer entering the building should use a chock, rug or other means of preventing the door from locking and thereby delaying other members trying to enter the building.

D) In order to provide a reliable and uninterrupted flow of water, all arriving engine and squad companies (when assigned as an engine or squad) shall locate and connect to a positive water source (hydrant, drafting, etc.)

B) In most cases, the first line is stretched via the interior stairs to the location of the fire. An exception to stretching the first line up the interior stairs may be made when flame is issuing from windows opening onto the fire escape and endangering people trying to come down the fire escape. In this case, the first line may be operated from the street to protect people on the fire escape. (FFP MDs 3.2.1-3.2.6)

A - CAN USE front suction inlet, exercise caution

B - Correct

C - FIRST MEMBER entering building will chock

D - When assigned as a squad, NOTE the location of hydrant but DO NOT hook up

6

The proper stretching of hose lines on the initial alarm is critical to a successful operation. Which of the following is incorrect concerning hose line stretching and placement at fires in MDs?

A) The 1st line stretched for a fire in a MD should be stretched by way of the interior stair. The primary purpose of this line is to safeguard the stairway so that it can be used by escaping occupants. Rapid positioning and operation of this line requires the door to the fire apartment to be opened as soon as the hose line is charged and positioned at the door. The hose line can be operated immediately into the fire apartment to protect people coming down the stairway from the floors above.

B) The 2nd hose line is also usually stretched by way of the interior stairs to the same floor as the first line. It is meant to augment the 1st line if necessary. If not needed on the original floor it is advanced to the floor above.

C) The 3rd line in the building should usually be stretched via the fire escape. This is especially true in OLTs because the stairway is narrow and the stretching of a 3rd line via the interior stairs would result in congestion and inability to move and of the hose lines.

D) In some cases the 2nd or 3rd lines may be urgently needed in one of the exposures. The decision as to the location to which these lines shall be stretched rests with the IC and is based on his size up of the fire situation.

E) At a fire in an OLT it is often necessary to stretch the 2nd line or the 3rd line into exposure 2 or 4 because fire has extended or is about to extend across the narrow shaft or shafts between buildings.

A) The 1st line stretched for a fire in a MD should be stretched by way of the interior stair. The primary purpose of this line is to safeguard the stairway so that it can be used by escaping occupants. Rapid positioning and operation of this line requires the door to the fire apartment to be opened as soon as the hose line is charged and positioned at the door. The hose line can be operated immediately into the fire apartment to protect people coming down the stairway from the floors above. (INCORRECT)

* The door to fire apartment can be opened ONCE STAIRWAY IS SAFE FOR CIVILIANS. (FFP MDs 3.2.12)

7

Ladder Companies have many duties and responsibilities at Multiple Dwelling fires. Which one of the following choices is a correct action for Ladder companies to perform?

A) Discretion should be used in the breaking of windows in apartments not involved in fire. Efforts should be made to open these windows where possible and necessary. Windows should be opened 1/3 from the top and 2/3's from the bottom to allow heat and smoke to vent and cool air in the room.

B) If there is a medium smoke condition and moderate heat in the apartment and the windows cannot be opened, they should be left intact after a search has been made.

C) Officers must not permit any material to be thrown out of windows unnecessarily. A member should always be posted in the years or street below, if available, to prevent injuries to anyone from falling material. If time permits, examination of yard shall be made before discarding any material into the yard to assure that no occupant has jumped into the yard prior to the arrival of FD units.

D) When fire is on the top floor or in the cockloft, sufficient firefighters with hooks must be sent to the top floor to pull ceilings, especially for larger non fireproof multiple dwellings. It may be necessary to use engine companies for this purpose or to special call additional ladder companies.

D) When fire is on the top floor or in the cockloft, sufficient firefighters with hooks must be sent to the top floor to pull ceilings, especially for larger non fireproof multiple dwellings. It may be necessary to use engine companies for this purpose or to special call additional ladder companies. (FFP MDs 3.3.3, 3.3.4, 3.3.9)

A - Open windows 2/3 FROM TOP & 1/3 FROM BOTTOM

B - If there is a TOLERABLE SMOKE CONDITION leave window intact

C - A member should ALWAYS be posted in the yard & ALWAYS
examine yard before throwing material into yard.

D - Correct

8

Who is responsible to make known to the IC and other members the manner in which the floors and apartments are designated, i.e. whether numerically or alphabetically?

A) The first FF inside the fire building.

B) The Officer of the first unit that is 10-84

C) The first Officer inside the building

D) The Roof FF of the first arriving ladder company.

C) The first Officer inside the building

(FFP MDs 3.5.5)

9

Gas meters are usually in the cellar but they may also be found in apartments and in public hallways. Which of the following is a proper procedure to follow if these gas meters are found?

A) If gas meters are burning they should be extinguished as soon as possible to prevent the gas concentration from reaching its lower explosive limit.

B) If fire at the meter is not extinguished immediately, gas will continue to discharge and an explosion or flash fire may occur when the gas comes in contact with a source of ignition.

C) If gas is leaking without being ignited, the gas supply should be shut off and the area ventilated as much as possible. Members should be moved away from the area of leaking gas. Fog lines may be used for venting.

D) A leak or break in the piping should be allowed to discharge freely and ventilated as much as possible while waiting for the gas to be shut off. Rags or paper should not be stuffed into the break, as this will cause a dangerous increase in pressure in the piping.

C) If gas is leaking without being ignited, the gas supply should be shut off and the area ventilated as much as possible. Members should be moved away from the area of leaking gas. Fog lines may be used for venting. (FFP MDs 3.5.9)

A - If gas meters are burning they should be ALLOWED TO BURN

B - If the fire at the meter IS EXTINGUISHED IMMEDIATELY gas will continue to discharge...flash fire may occur. WET DOWN COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS while waiting for gas supply to be shut off.

C - Correct

D - Rags or paper CAN BE STUFFED into pipe break.

10

As a general rule, outside streams should not be directed into occupied buildings. Occupants should be removed first. However, in some cases, life safety or fire conditions may require that outside streams be used in occupied buildings. For example, to protect people on a fire escape or for heavy fire in a store. All of the following are incorrect statements about outside streams except which one?

A) Some of the situations which may call for the use of outside streams are: to protect life by putting a stream between the fire and the occupants, to protect exposures, to confine the fire, or to diminish heavy fire so that an interior attack can be made.

B) Only a chief officer may order the use of outside streams. For example, the first arriving BC may order the deck pipe used for a store fire.

C) The air movement resulting from the use of large caliber streams must be considered. The air movement caused by the stream will, at times, drive the fire, heat, combustible gases and smoke into uninvolved areas of the building. At large area building fires, a careful positioning of apparatus and operation of outside streams should be attempted so that fire and heat will be driven away from the point of origin in order to adequately ventilate the fire area.

D) The use of outside streams into a building can cause injuries to members operating inside the building. Members inside the building must be warned, and moved outside the building before outside streams are directed into the building. Is exterior location must be verified by personal contact or radio by the IC of the fire.

Answer: A) Some of the situations which may call for the use of outside streams are: to protect life by putting a stream between the fire and the occupants, to protect exposures, to confine the fire, or to diminish heavy fire so that an interior attack can be made.

(FFP MDs 3.5.10)

B - Only IC can order outside streams (can be first officer on scene)

C - The operation of outside streams should be attempted so that fire and heat will be directed AWAY FROM UNINVOLVED AREAS.

D - Members must be warned and MOVED TO A SAFE LOCATION (doesn't have to be outside of the building)

11

When should a 2 1/2" line be stretched in an OLT?

A) a serious cellar fire

B) a large volume of fire in a store

C) fire in the cockloft

D) Never. Due to the need for speed and maneuverability in OLTs, all interior hand lines shall be considered 1 3/4"

Answer: B) large volume of fire in a store

(FFP MDs 4.2.2 A)

12

The severe life hazard in OLTs because of the crowded living conditions and the ease with which fire can spread requires prompt and efficient stretching of hose lines by engine companies. Choose the incorrect point about OLTs.

A) At least the 1st length of hose should be brought up to the floor below the fire and the hose strap attached to prevent hose from slipping back down the well hole of the stairway. When performing the well hole stretch, it is important that the hose line is removed from the well on the floor below the fire.

B) If people are out on the fire escape when the 1st engine company arrives, and it appears that those people are in danger because of fire coming out the windows, then two lines should be stretched. One line is to remain in the street to protect people on the fire escape and the other line to be taken into the building.

C) Engine companies with lines in exposures can extinguish a great deal of fire in the fire building by operating across a shaft. However, this should not be done without the permission of the IC as it may drive the fire at members advancing from the interior.

D) The absence of a fire escape on the front of an OLT will usually indicate that the apartments are railroad flats. Corner buildings may be an exception to this general rule.

Answer: A) At least the 1st length of hose should be brought up to the floor below the fire and the hose strap attached to prevent hose from slipping back down the well hole of the stairway. When performing the well hole stretch, it is important that the hose line is removed from the well on the floor below the fire. (INCORRECT)

(FFP MDs 4.1.2, 4.1.4, 4.1.5, 4.1.6)

* At least the 1st length of hose should be brought up to the FIRE FLOOR.

13

Engine 2 responds 1st due to a fire in the cellar of 100 Smith Street, which is a 5 story OLT. Radio reports from Ladder 1, the first arriving ladder, confirm that there is a major fire in the cellar, and there are no outside cellar entrances at the front or rear. Which of the following is an incorrect procedure for units to follow at this fire?

A) The 1st line should be stretched to the cellar entrance door which is located inside the building, under the stairway on the first floor.

B) The 1st line should not be advanced down the cellar stairs. This line should remain at this position to provide protection for people coming down the stairway, and to extinguish fire which may be extending upward from cellar via partitions, dumbwaiter shafts and other voids.

C) Ventilation must be provided at the roof over the stairway, at the top of the dumbwaiter shaft, and other shafts and vertical openings. Ventilation must also be provided via cellar windows, doors, trap doors, and by intermittently opening and closing the door at the top of the interior cellar stairs after all of the occupants have been evacuated.

D) Ladder companies check for extension on the upper parts of the building since OLTs do not have the advantage of a fireproof cellar ceiling such as is found in buildings erected at a later date. This spread of fire may be via combustible ceilings, partitions, shafts, pipe recesses and other voids.

Answer: B) The 1st line should not be advanced down the cellar stairs. This line should remain at this position to provide protection for people coming down the stairway, and to extinguish fire which may be extending upward from cellar via partitions, dumbwaiter shafts and other voids.

(FFP MDs 4.2.1)

* Since there are no other entrances to the cellar you must advance the lime down the cellar stair.

14

Engine 1 responds 1st due to a fire in the cellar of 100 Smith Street, which is a 5 story OLT. Ladder 1 reports there is a major fire in the cellar with a front, outside cellar entrance. Where should the 2nd hose line be stretched?

A) Into the front door on the first floor, to act as a backup line to the 1st hose line.

B) Advanced into the cellar by way of the front entrance to the cellar.

C) To an upper floor to stop the spread of fire via combustible ceilings, partitions, shafts, pipe recesses and other voids.

D) To exposure 2, to prevent the spread of fire via common cellar beams.

B) Advanced into the cellar by way of the front entrance to the cellar.

(FFP MDs 4.2.1 C)

* Cellar entrance can also be found in rear. First hose line stretched to first floor to interior cellar stairs.

15

Store fires in OLTs may involve a large amount of combustible material and present many challenges to members. Which of the following is an incorrect consideration at these store fires?

A) A charged line must be ready before the store is ventilated. It is especially important that no plate glass windows be broken without a charged line being ready.

B) Stores in OLTs may have a door which opens into the public hallway on the first floor. The first floor public hallway should be examined immediately to determine whether the means of egress for the occupants of the building is in danger from the store fire. If so, a line should be positioned to protect the interior stairs.

C) Store owners may use the rear of the store as their living quarters, so it is important to search the rear of the stores as soon as possible. Access to the rear will be extremely difficult because of iron bars on windows and the interior hall door possibly nailed shut.

D) Due to the potential for serious fires caused by the large amount of combustible material, a 2nd line should be stretched as soon as possible to backup the 1st line. The 2nd line will advance into the store with the first line is necessary, or will stand fast. If a line is needed on the floor above the fire, a 3rd line shall be stretched.

Answer:

D) Due to the potential for serious fires caused by the large amount of combustible material, a 2nd line should be stretched as soon as possible to backup the 1st line. The 2nd line will advance into the store with the first line is necessary, or will stand fast. If a line is needed on the floor above the fire, a 3rd line shall be stretched. (INCORRECT)

(FFP MDs 4.3.1)

*When assured that 2nd line is not needed on 1st floor, it may be advanced to the floor above.

16

The stairway in OLTs is the primary means of egress for occupants. If the fire has extended into the stairway from an apartment, it is possible that the fire escape exit may also be cut off by flame from the apartment windows. Which one of the following choices is an incorrect tactic to consider at these serious stairway fires?

A) The 1st line should be stretched up the stairway, operated to extinguish the fire, shut down and advanced further up the stairway. When possible, the line should be operated up the well hole to cool off the hall and stairs above.

B) The 1st line should remain on the floor below the top floor in case the fire extends to an apartment.

C) A 2nd line should follow up extinguishing operations and to serve as protection for members advancing the 1st line. Apartments must be checked for possible extension of fire in them.

D) Ventilation of the roof over the stairway is extremely important so that hoseline can advance up the stairway.

E) It is important that members do not overload the stairway in these old buildings. Those not immediately necessary to the operation should remain on floors below.

Answer: B) The 1st line should remain on the floor below the top floor in case the fire extends to an apartment. (INCORRECT)

(FFP MDs 4.2.4)

* Go all the way to the TOP FLOOR.

17

Air, light, and dumbwaiter shaft fires may result in fire extending into a building or into two buildings through window openings. Which of the following is a correct action to take at these shaft fires?

A) The first hose line should always be stretched to the base of the shaft. Sufficient hose must be stretched to reach upper floors or building.

B) A line should be stretched to the nearest point from which water can be directed onto fire in the shaft. Sufficient hose must be stretched to reach upper floors of the building.

C) The 2nd line should always be stretched to the top floor of the building to extinguish fire in the shaft and any fire that has extended to the cockloft.

D) For fires in rooms in the vicinity of a shaft, the line should be operated up the shaft to extinguish fire and cool the shaft only when the fire in the room has been completely extinguished.

Answer: B) A line should be stretched to the nearest point from which water can be directed onto fire in the shaft. Sufficient hose must be stretched to reach upper floors of the building.

(FFP MDs 4.2.6)

A - be careful of "should always" A line should be stretched to NEAREST POINT from which water can be directed at fire.

B - Correct

C - It MAY BE NECESSARY to stretch 2nd line to top floor...

D - do this AFTER FIRE HAS BEEN CONTROLLED (fire doesn't have to be completely extinguished)

18

Because of the short span of floor beams (25') and the fact that the floors are not heavily loaded, the collapse of floors in OLTs is usually not a problem. However, there have been instances of collapse, including floors collapsing when there were previous fires and the floor beams were badly burned. Choose the incorrect point about collapses in OLTs.

A) Floor joists which are supported by masonry walls are generally provided with fire cuts.

B) At times, there have been collapses of older buildings not associated with fires, such as when adjoining buildings have been torn down or when excavations are being dug on adjacent land.

C) Any indication of collapsing floors during fire operations should be promptly reported to the IC so that units can be withdrawn to safe positions. These indications of possible collapse may include plaster ceilings falling, floors or ceilings sagging, and unusual creaking noises.

D) When the metal cornice at the roof has been involved in heavy fire for a short period of time, the cornice or parts of it may suddenly fall. It is important to be aware that this may happen and to keep members, and other people away from the front of the building.

Answer: D) When the metal cornice at the roof has been involved in heavy fire for a SHORT period of time, the cornice or parts of it may suddenly fall. It is important to be aware that this may happen and to keep members, and other people away from the front of the building.

(FFP MDs 4.3.1 - 4.3.2)

* When cornice is involved in heavy fire for a CONSIDERABLE amount of time it may suddenly fall.

19

Although it is no longer permitted to convert OLTs into Single Room Occupancies, thousands of such buildings have been converted and are still being used as SRO's. All of the following are correct except for which point?

A) In these SROs the individual rooms in each apartment are rented to occupants and the bathroom and kitchen facilities are used by all of the occupants of the apartment.

B) These buildings require sprinklers in each room and in the stairway. The sprinkler system is usually supplied by a roof tank, or more infrequently by supplying the Siamese connection.

C) Each individual room is equipped with a lock; many padlocks on the outside. Just because a door is found padlocked, do not assume that the room is empty. Someone may be locked in the room. Entry must be made and all rooms searched.

D) The layout of the rooms must be arranged so that each occupant has access to both means of egress (stairs and fire escape) without having to go through another person's room.

E) These SROs also require interior alarm system to earn occupants of fire. Exit lights and signs must be provided.

B) These buildings require sprinklers in each room and in the stairway. The sprinkler system is usually supplied by a roof tank, or more infrequently by supplying the Siamese connection. (INCORRECT)

(FFP MDs 4.3.4)

* These buildings HAVE NO ROOF TANK and these systems CANNOT BE SUPPLIED by FDNY.

20

The H-type design of residence buildings differs from the older tenements and the newer high rise multiple dwellings in that there are three structural elements to support the structure: masonry bearing walls, wood beams that supports floors and roof, and structural steel columns, beams and girders that connect and support sections of the H-type building. Steel in H types create three concerns to the fire service. Which of the following is not correctly listed as one of these concerns?

A) Steel when heated expands, and substantial elongation can occur at a fire. This elongation can cause a wall to budge, move, or even collapse if the steel is set within the wall.

B) Steel when heated the higher temperatures during a fire may fail. Floor beams supported by such failing steel will fall to the floor below.

C) Steel columns or girders, generally in an "I" beam shape, transmit firs and heat. The "I" beam or channel rail, as it is sometimes called, when in the form of a column located in the inner framework of a building may extend fire from the cellar up to the top floor ceiling and not beyond.

C) Steel columns or girders, generally in an "I" beam shape, transmit firs and heat. The "I" beam or channel rail, as it is sometimes called, when in the form of a column located in the inner framework of a building may extend fire from the cellar up to the top floor ceiling and not beyond. (INCORRECT)

(FFP MDs 5.1.1 B & C)

* May extend fire from 1ST FLOOR TO ROOF SPACE OR COCKLOFT

21

Roof operations are very important at fires in H type buildings, especially when fire extends to the cockloft. Which one of the following choices is not correct concerning roof construction and operations in H type buildings?

A) The most common roof has the top floor ceiling several feet below the main roof beams. This provides for a sturdy roof.

B) In the inverted, raised or reversed roof the main roof beams are at the ceiling level and a framework is raised above these beams
With the roof boards attached. This roof is normally springy but it permits the roof to be pitched so that water will run off.

C) If there is a heavy body of fire in the cockloft, expect at least a partial collapse of the inverted roof. Since the inverted roof is constructed of 2' x 4's, they will burn away faster than the main roof beams and the roof section will come to rest on these beams.

D) Top floor fires always present the possibility of fire extending into the cockloft. It is imperative for the IC to assign a roof sector supervisor early into the operation. The Roof Sector Supervisor must always be a Chief Officer due to the critical importance of this position.

E) When it is necessary to cut holes in the roof, initially, approximately a 3' x 6' coffin cut is recommended. Two saws should be put into operation promptly to prevent lateral spread of fire in the cockloft.

D) Top floor fires always present the possibility of fire extending into the cockloft. It is imperative for the IC to assign a roof sector supervisor early into the operation. The Roof Sector Supervisor must always be a Chief Officer due to the critical importance of this position. (INCORRECT)

(FFP MDs 5.1.1 D, 5.3.3 A, B)

* Roof Sector Supervisor doesn't necessarily have to be a Chief (It could be a company Officer until a Chief arrives)

22

Interior shafts and voids are found throughout "H" type buildings. The potential for fire extension is great in these buildings as a result of these voids. Choose the incorrect point about these voids.

A) Steel columns, known as channel rails, are erected vertically from the foundation to the cockloft. Their locations vary according to the architect's design, and are at times difficult to locate. They are often located in voids behind closets. Our main concern is they are not fire stopped.

B) Vertical voids, created by channel rails, are about one foot square. These voids may be larger when the void is built to include waste and water pipes.

C) When the fire is knocked down and opening up begins, areas where the lath has been burned must be examined for the presence of steel columns (channel rails). If detected, locations above the fire must be checked immediately.

D) Waste pipe recesses exist where've a kitchen or bathroom exist. Their presence may be picked up first by the Roof Firefighter who notes the location of exposed waste pipes atop roofs which line up with the fire below. If the pipe is hot to the touch with an ungloved hand initiate a ventilation hole with the saw.

E) Closets' construction atop one another sometimes provides a vertical artery. Workmanship may be shoddy in closets creating openings for fire travel. They are usually back to back with other closets. This may lead to horizontal extension as well as vertical extension.

D) Waste pipe recesses exist where've a kitchen or bathroom exist. Their presence may be picked up first by the Roof Firefighter who notes the location of exposed waste pipes atop roofs which line up with the fire below. If the pipe is hot to the touch with an ungloved hand initiate a ventilation hole with the saw. (INCORRECT)

(FFP MDs 5.2.6)

* If HOT TO THE TOUCH (don't use ungloved hand) , a top floor examination is required and notification made to officer and the IC.

23

Engine 1, Engine 2, Engine 3, Aerial Ladder 4 and Tower Ladder 5 arrive on the scene at a fire on the top floor of a 6 story "H" type NFP Multiple Dwelling. Heavy fire is showing out windows in the throat, courtyard, and front windows on the 6th floor. Exposures 2 and 4 are attached 4 story NLTs. All stairways in the fire building are transverse stairs. Engine 9 and Ladder 8 are assigned on the transmission of the 10-75 by the Officer of Engine 1. Which of the following actions taken by the engine companies on scene is incorrect?

A) Engine 1 stretched an 1 3/4" line to the lobby and stood fast while waiting for Ladder 4 to determine the exact location of the fire. While the unit waited, the Officer of Engine 1 checked the 2nd floor to determine if the wings are connected on the 2nd floor.

B) Engine 1 and Engine 2 teamed up to stretch the first line to the top floor. Simulateneously, Engine 3 stretched a 2nd line with the assistance of Engine 9 to back up the 1st hose line due to the heavy fire condition on the top floor.

C) The Officer of Engine 1 determined that the stairs wrapped around the elevator shaft. The Officer of Engine 1 deployed a rope out the stairway window and ordered the members to attach the rope to the hose line and pull the rope rather than stretch up the stairs.

D) The 1st line was pulled via the rope up to the 5th floor. Sufficient hose was pulled into the 5th floor before the line was charged.

B) Engine 1 and Engine 2 teamed up to stretch the first line to the top floor. Simulateneously, Engine 3 stretched a 2nd line with the assistance of Engine 9 to back up the 1st hose line due to the heavy fire condition on the top floor. (INCORRECT)

(FFP MDs 5.2.1)

* All available Engine companies should get the 1st line into operation BEFORE STRETCHING ADDITIONAL LINES.

24

Engine 1, Engine 2, Engine 3, Aerial Ladder 4 and Tower Ladder 5 arrive on the scene at a fire on the top floor of a 6 story "H" type NFP Multiple Dwelling. Heavy fire is showing out windows in the throat, courtyard, and front windows on the 6th floor. Exposures 2 and 4 are attached 4 story NLTs. All stairways in the fire building are transverse stairs. Engine 9 and Ladder 8 are assigned on the transmission of the 10-75 by the Officer of Engine 1. Which of the following indicates a correct action taken by the Ladder companies at this fire?

A) Ladder 4 was positioned blocking off the front entrance courtyard in order to rescue any potential victims that showed at the windows on the top floor.

B) TL 5 was ordered by the IC to use its master stream to extinguish fire on the 6th floor. The stream was operated into the courtyard windows first, followed by the throat and finally into the front windows.

C) Ladder 4 initially raised the Aerial ladder to the roof for rapid ascent to the roof and outside vent firefighter.

D) The windows in the fire apartment are vented by the aerial as ordered by the IC, Battalion Chief Smith who has just arrived on the scene. After windows are vented, the aerial ladder remains at a top floor window in case it is needed for escape.k

C) Ladder 4 initially raised the Aerial ladder to the roof for rapid ascent to the roof and outside vent firefighter.

(FFP MDs 5.2.2)

A - DO NOT block off courtyard entrance, leave for TL.

B - If the fire is showing out windows in the throat, courtyard and front windows, and a tower ladder stream is being used, it should be DIRECTED AT THE WINDOWS IN THE THROAT FIRST. The stream should then be advanced toward the front of the building and finally operated into the front windows.

C - Correct

D - After windows are vented, RETURN AERIAL TO ROOF.

25

Engine 313 and Ladder 164 are discussing store fires in "H" type Multiple Dwellings. After pointing out that many of these buildings contain one or more stores on the 1st floor, and that the floor above stores are constructed of wood joists, the officers conducting drill discussed tactical operations. Which operation was not correctly described by the officer?

A) The 1st line is stretched to the store and extinguishes fire.

B) The 2nd line should be used to backup the 1st line. The large size of these stores requires the 2nd line to remain on the 1st floor to operate on the store fire or to serve as a backup line.

C) If 2 lines are needed in the store, the 3rd line shall be stretched to the floor above.

D) The 2nd ladder shall proceed to the floor above for forcible entry and search for life and extension. Areas larger than the actual size of the store must be checked due to the possibility of horizontal travel of fire as well as smoke.

E) These buildings have a peculiarity in that many times a fire will bypass intermediate areas both vertically and horizontally and then when an obstruction is met will set fire to the surrounding material. The top floor and cockloft must be checked and rechecked at a later time.

B) The 2nd line should be used to backup the 1st line. The large size of these stores requires the 2nd line to remain on the 1st floor to operate on the store fire or to serve as a backup line. (INCORRECT)

(FFP MDs 5.3.1 A & B)

* INITIALLY backup the 1st line. GO TO FLOOR ABOVE when it's obvious that the fire can be controlled by the 1st line.

26

Cellar fires in "H" type buildings require close coordination of tactics between Engine and Ladder companies. Choose the correct point about cellar fires in "H" type buildings.

A) There is fireproof construction throughout the cellar. The cellar ceiling is concrete and rated at 2 hour fire resistance.

B) The 1st line is stretched by way of the usually numerous exterior approaches, or interior stairs, to the seat of the fire and extinguished.

C) The Roof FF proceeds to the roof for vent and examination. This FF does not check the cockloft for possible extension of fire through vertical voids as it is more efficient to check via the top floor ceilings.

D) The limited ground level windows found in the rear limits ventilation and preclude alternate points of attack for the Engine company.

A) There is fireproof construction throughout the cellar. The cellar ceiling is concrete and rated at 2 hour fire resistance.

(FFP MDs 5.8.2)

B - NOT INTERIOR STAIRS

C - Roof FF DOES CHECK COCKLOFT

D - H types have NUMEROUS ground level windows

27

Top floor, roof and cockloft fires have resulted in devastating losses of entire "H" type buildings in many parts of NYC in recent years. Which tactic is incorrectly described below in combating these fires?

A) When it is necessary to cut holes in the roof, initially, approximately a 3' x 6' coffin cut is recommended. Two saws should be put into operation promptly to prevent lateral spread of fire in the cockloft.

B) Ventilation of the top floor must be also accomplished via the windows. This may be done from the interior or from the fire escape, ladders or roof.

C) At these cockloft fires it is very important to have the ceilings pulled to expose the fire. At times it may be necessary to assign engine companies or individual engine firefighters to pull ceilings. A charged line must be in readiness to extinguish exposed fire.

D) One of the most serious problems at these cockloft fires is to determine the extent of the fire. To accomplish this it will be necessary to get all apartments open on the top floor, and begin opening up above the original fire area and move further away to determine the extent of the fire area.

E) Fire stopping in the cockloft cannot be depended on. Cockloft may be undivided, as in the case when fire partitions only come up to the underside of the roof beams, or there may be openings in the fire stopping because of poor workmanship.

D) One of the most serious problems at these cockloft fires is to determine the extent of the fire. To accomplish this it will be necessary to get all apartments open on the top floor, and begin opening up above the original fire area and move further away to determine the extent of the fire area. (INCORRECT)

(FFP MDs 5.3.3)

* GET AHEAD of fire and work your way BACK TO WHERE FIRE ORIGINATED.

28

Although infrequently performed, cutting a trench in the roof is a defensive operation used to limit the extension of fire in the cockloft. The following choices contain several key points concerning trenching at "H" type buildings. Which one is incorrect?

A) A trench may be cut but should not be opened until there is an adequate vent opening directly over the fire. Ideally, the trench should be precut, but not pulled. Two or more inspection holes may be cut on the fire side of the trench. When, and if, the fire reaches inspection holes, the precut trench is pulled.

B) The trench cut must be at least 3' wide, and cut from wall to wall or other suitable fire stop such as a stair or elevator bulkhead. The trench should be cut about 20 feet from the initial vent hole. It should be cut at the narrowest section of the roof taking advantage of bulkhead structures, outside walls, skylights etc.

C) Keep all personnel off the roof on the fire side of the trench. It is good practice, on larger buildings, to have 2 ladders raised to the roof at different ends of the building to provide egress from the roof.

D) A charged line should be in position on the roof to protect personnel and the trench opening. This line may be operated into the trench in a brief sweep in side to side motion to prevent fire from extending across the cockloft. As a last resort, the hose line may be operated into the trench to extinguish fire from above due to inaccessibility and ceilings height.

E) Additional examination holes may have to be made past the trench. A large hole must be cut over the main area of fire. After this large hole is cut over the fire then the trench cuts can be made as defensive moves to separate the roof sections. This will not interfere with the thermal updraft that is venting the main fire.

D) A charged line should be in position on the roof to protect personnel and the trench opening. This line may be operated into the trench in a brief sweep in side to side motion to prevent fire from extending across the cockloft. As a last resort, the hose line may be operated into the trench to extinguish fire from above due to inaccessibility and ceilings height (INCORRECT)

(FFP MDs 5.3.3 I)

* DO NOT OPERATE INTO TRENCH

29

Ladder 1 and Engine 2 respond by themselves to a UCT run for a CO detector activation in apartment 2C of a 6 story renovated "H" type MD. Upon arrival at the door of apartment 2C, Ladder 1 notices the door is open and there is heavy fire in apartment 2C. A 10-75 is transmitted, and Engine 2 with the assistance of the 2nd and 3rd due engines extinguishes the fire before the arrival of Ladder 3, the 2nd due ladder who is delayed due to BISP. Which action taken by Ladder 1 is incorrect?

A) The officer of Ladder 1 orders the Irons FF and the OV to the floor above, directly over the fire, to feel the walls for hot spots, including the walls of closets. These firefighters must also feel the floors above the fire and of the adjoining rooms.

B) The Irons FF of Ladder 1 discovers a hot spot on an unusually thick partition wall in the kitchen of the apartment above the fire area. The Irons FF notifies his officer, and makes a small hole in the wall for examination with no hose line present in the apartment.

C) Upon making a small hole in the wall on the floor above, the Irons FF notices fire in a void containing an electrical conduit. The Irons FF notifies the IC and immediately proceeds to the top floor to check the termination point of this void for any extension to the cockloft.

D) Upon opening the top floor ceiling, no fire is discovered in the cockloft. The Irons FF notifies his officer, who calls for a line to be stretched to the top floor, and orders the Roof FF to cut a hole in the roof.

D) Upon opening the top floor ceiling, no fire is discovered in the cockloft. The Irons FF notifies his officer, who calls for a line to be stretched to the top floor, and orders the Roof FF to cut a hole in the roof. (INCORRECT)

(FFP MDs 5.10.5 & 5.10.6)

* Do this if there is FIRE IN THE COCKLOFT