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Flashcards in FFP - LOFTS Deck (42)
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0

A fire tower may be found in which types of Loft Buildings?

A) Older cast-iron

B) Newer cast-iron

C) Mill

D) Fireproof

C) Mill
D) Fireproof

(FFP Lofts, 5.3.5)

* Fire towers are smoke proof, non combustible stairway enclosures that give occupants a smoke free egress to the street. Fire towers are ideal for FDNY use as evacuation stairways, however they should not be used as an attack stairway.

* Fire Towers are found in Mill and Fireproof types of Loft buildings.

1

During BISP members saw a hose header at the Loft building being inspected and asked what it is. You would be incorrect to state?

A) Generally located inside below grade toward the front of the building.

B) If to be used as an inlet, an interior valve must manually be opened.

C) It has multiple valve outlets

D) When operating properly it uses water from the fire pump

A) Generally located inside below grade toward the front of the building (INCORRECT)

(FFP Lofts pg 1)

* Hose Headers generally located on the EXTERIOR WALL OF
BUILDING.

2

Which type of Loft building is incorrectly described?

A) Older cast iron - 1840s to 1870s, frontage 25-50' max 7-8 stories

B) Newer cast iron - 1880s to 1901, frontage usually 50', 8-12 stories

C) Mill - Heavy timber, 2 exterior load bearing walls, elevators at
perimeter.

D) Fireproof - 10 to 15 stories,enclosed int stairs,may span entire block.

C) Mill - Heavy timber, 2 exterior load bearing walls, elevators at
perimeter. (INCORRECT)

(FFP Lofts 2.2, 4.1.1)

* Mill - FOUR (4) EXTERIOR WALLS LOAD BEARING

3

Which glossary term is not correct in regards to Loft Buildings?

A) Pediment = a wide, low pitched gable surmounting the facade of a
building, may be found over windows.

B) Saw Tooth Roof = a roof design utilizing parallel roof sections to
disperse natural light throughout the interior of the
building.

C) Wall manifold = outlets on an exterior wall supplied by a fire
department pumper.

D) Deadlights = fixed glass segments imbedded in cast iron frames or
masonry to provide natural light for sidewalk vaults.

C) Wall manifold = outlets on an exterior wall supplied by a fire department pumper. (INCORRECT)

(FFP Lofts Glossary)

* Outlets on an exterior wall supplied by a GRAVITY TANK, PRESSURE
TANK OR OTHER WATER SOURCE FOR BUILDING.

4

Which is not an accurate statement about sidewalk vaults in regards to Loft Buildings?

A) They are a four wall enclosure under the front sidewalk.

B) A granite stone covering the vault to the curb line indicates a "full" (building to curb) vault.

C) Generally supported by wrought iron I-Beams or cast iron structural members.

D) Originally built with small Deadlights for natural light to enter the cellar.

A) They are a four wall enclosure under the front sidewalk. (INCORRECT)

(FFP Lofts 5.1.1)

* They are THREE (3) wall enclosures.

5

While drilling with the newly assigned proby about Engine operations at Loft building fires you made the following statements. Which one was correct?

A) Depending on fire conditions an 1 3/4" or 2 1/2" line may be the initial line stretched.

B) The 2nd handline should be immediately stretched to the floor above unless the Officer of the first hose line indicates they can't hold the fire with one line.

C) The deck pipe from the Engine should not be used on advanced fires due to the possibility of the master stream dislodging an interior cast iron column.

D) If a backdraft condition exists and vertical ventilation is not possible, position the hoseline with firefighters to the side of the entrance, immediately open the line when the fire area is accessed.

D) If a backdraft condition exists and vertical ventilation is not possible, position the hoseline with firefighters to the side of the entrance, immediately open the line when the fire area is accessed.

(FFP Lofts 6.1.1)

A - 2 1/2" line should be initial line (NOT 1 3/4")

B - 2nd line usually stretched up interior stairs to SAME FLOOR as the
first line.

C - For advanced fires, a quick knockdown using the deck pipe WILL
ALLOW FOR a rapid interior attack once the line is in position.

D - Correct

6

Which is incorrect about the sprinkler systems at Loft Buildings?

A) Although rare, perforated pipe systems may be found.

B) The 2nd Engine supplies the sprinkler Siamese if not already done at a cellar fire in a cast-iron loft building.

C) Automatic sprinklers will always have a Siamese for augmentation.

D) Section valves for the upper floors sprinkler system may be found on each floor.

C) Automatic sprinklers will always have a Siamese for augmentation. (INCORRECT)

(FFP Lofts 6.1.9)

* Automatic sprinklers MAY NOT HAVE A SIAMESE.

7

Which is not a correct statement about mill lofts?

A) Wooden girders are at least 8" thick

B) Exposed wood joists support 3" tongue and groove or 3-4" wood planks.

C) Control panels, shit off valves & meters are located on the lowest level of the building.

D) Walls have built in sockets to accept floor girders and joists.

A) Wooden girders are at least 8" thick (INCORRECT)

(FFP Lofts 4.3.1)

* Wood girders are SIX INCHES (6")

8

Which is incorrect about older cast-iron Lofts?

A) Interior support columns of cast-iron, wrought iron, brick or wood

B) Some buildings have a cockloft

C) One unenclosed stairway that is either straight run or wraps around the elevator.

D) If frontage is 25' there will often be a cast iron interior column

D) If frontage is 25' there will often be a cast iron interior column (INCORRECT)

(FFP Lofts 4.1)

* 25' frontage indicates NO CAST IRON INTERIOR COLUMNS.

9

At a study group the topic of newer cast iron Loft buildings came up. Which is incorrect?

A) Generally larger than the older cast-iron, with frontage from 50-100'

B) Usually 2 interior stairs

C) Generally only one interior stairway is enclosed

D) Various types of fire escapes may be found on any side of the building.

C) Generally only one interior stairway is enclosed (INCORRECT)

(FFP Lofts 4.2.1)

* Generally there are TWO (2) ENCLOSED INT. STAIRS.

10

Select the incorrect statement about Mill Loft buildings?

A) High ceilings were eliminated or largely reduced

B) Skylights an monitors were built into ceilings to provide sunlight to top floor.

C) Frontage of 100' to 150'

D) Walls will have built in sockets to accept floor girders

A) High ceilings were eliminated or largely reduced (INCORRECT)

(FFP Lofts 2.2)

* High ceilings are CHARACTERISTIC OF MILL LOFTS.

11

Members of Ladder 93 were discussing operations at loft building fires. Which is incorrect?

A) Avoid placing portable and aerial ladders to windows with a "shaft way" sign.

B) After completing laddering duties at Mill Loft cellar fires, the first two LCCs should open up sidewalk access points.

C) Roof access at a cast-iron building fire is via adjoining building or remote interior stairway.

D) The 2nd arriving LCC for a lower floor Mill Loft fire should intitially assist the first LCC.

C) Roof access at a cast-iron building fire is via adjoining building or remote interior stairway. (INCORRECT)

(FFP Lofts 5.1.2, 7.2.1)

* Roof access at cast-iron lofts
1. Adjoining building
2. Aerial or TL Ladder
3. Fire escape

12

The elevators in older cast iron Loft buildings have characteristics slightly different then we are accustomed to in newer residential and commercial buildings. Which is an incorrect characteristic?

A) Freight elevators will not be installed with fireman service capabilities.

B) Some passenger elevators may be flush with the front of the building facade and entered directly off the sidewalk.

C) Elevator doors look like apartment doors in many loft buildings.

D) Freight elevator shafts were frequently built using terra cotta tile which is difficult to breach.

D) Freight elevator shafts were frequently built using terra cotta tile which is difficult to breach. (INCORRECT)

(FFP Lofts 5.1.10)

* Terra cotta CAN BE READILY BREACHED if needed.

13

There is a myth in the fire service about the effect that water will have on a heated cast-iron column in a Loft building. Which statement below about cast-iron columns is true?

A) Cast-iron columns cast improperly are inherent weak links, there is a reliable (but expensive) method to determine if a column was properly cast.

B) If an improperly cast column is cooled by a hoseline it can contract disproportionately leading to potential failure.

C) These columns were designed to withstand an eccentric load

D) When a heated column is cooled by a hose line it will regain its strength.

B) If an improperly cast column is cooled by a hoseline it can contract disproportionately leading to potential failure.

(FFP Lofts 5.1)

A - There is NO reliable way to know if column was cast properly.

B - Correct

C - These columns are NOT DESIGNED to withstand an eccentric load.

D - There's a myth in the fire department that a cast iron column
exposed to fire will shatter when cooled by a hoseline. An
improperly cast column, however, will contract when cooled and
could possibly fail. STRENGTH LOST IS CUMULATIVE and it is
never regained.

14

Segmental arch floors are found in newer Cast Iron Loft buildings and have a collapse potential. Which statement is incorrect?

A) Segmental arch floors should not be breached for fear of causing a
general floor collapse.

B) Segmental arch floors exposed to fire can spall violently, but will not
fail, when struck by water from a hoseline.

C) Indiscriminate overhauling on the underside of segmental arch floors
can cause a localized collapse.

D) In newer cast iron buildings the hose line should not be operated
overhead due to the segmental arch floor and fear of collapse.

B) Segmental arch floors exposed to fire can spall violently, but will not
fail, when stuck by water from a hoseline. (INCORRECT)

(FFP Lofts 5.2.1)

* They can spall violently AND POSSIBLY FAIL when struck by water.

15

Members of truck were discussing general tactics and procedures outlined in the recently published loft bulletin. However, a statement made by one of the middle management firefighters did not comply with this bulletin. Which choice is incorrect?

A) Pediments must be avoided when positioning apparatus ladders due to uneven contact points and the prohibitive distance from the ladder to the roof surface. Small pediments situated over windows may also be found.

B) Cast iron lofts may have up to 4 doorways fronting the street.

C) Indiscriminate overhauling on the underside of the segmental arch floors can cause a complete building collapse.

D) Segmental arch floors exposed to fire can spall violently and possibly fail when stuck by water from a hoseline below. Do not operate the stream directly overhead.

C) Indiscriminate overhauling on the underside of the segmental arch floors can cause a complete building collapse. (INCORRECT)

(FFP Lofts 7.1.19)

* This can cause a LOCALIZED collapse.

16

Loft buildings present FDNY members with a number of challenges. It is important to realize that fireproof residential lofts and fireproof non residential lofts require initial hoselines of what size?

A) 1 3/4" for residential and 2 1/2" for non residential.

B) 2 1/2" for residential and 2 1/2" for non residential.

C) 1 3/4" for residential and 1 3/4" for non residential.

D) 2 1/2" for residential and 1 3/4" for non residential.

B) 2 1/2" for residential and 2 1/2" for non residential.

(Lofts 6.3.1 A)

* Cast-iron and Mill Lofts ALSO require initial hoselines to be 2 1/2".

17

According to the new FDNY manual of Loft buildings, it is important to know that steel tension cables or rods, used to tie-in opposing walls due to age and deterioration, can fail at a minimum of _______ degrees Fahrenheit.

A) 400

B) 500

C) 800

D) 1000

C) 800

(FFP Loft 5.3.8)

18

Loft buildings are unique and may contain Ashland masonry. Ashland masonry is stone cut into rectangular units, most often?

A) 18" to 24" high by 2 to 3 feet long.

B) 12" to 24" high by 3 to 4 feet long.

C) 28" to 24" high by 2 to 3 feet long.

D) 18" to 24" high by 3 to 4 feet long.

A) 18" to 24" high by 2 to 3 feet long.

(Lofts Glossary)

* Iron plating is sometimes used to imitate Ashlar masonry.

19

What kind of Loft buildings are a maximum of 7 to 8 stories, have frontages of 25 feet, on only one street, and have depths reaching 90 feet?

A) Fireproof lofts

B) Mill Lofts

C) Newer cast iron lofts (1880s - 1901)

D) Older cast iron lofts (1840s - 1870s)

D) Older cast iron lofts (1840s - 1870s)

(Lofts 4.1.1)

A - Fireproof: 10 to 15 stories / 50-100' wide / 75-200' deep.

B - Mill: 4 to 6 stories / 100-150' wide / up to 200' deep.

C - Newer cast iron: 8 to 12 stories / 50-100' wide / 90-200' deep

D - Older cast iron: 7 to 8 stories / 25' wide / 90' deep.

20

According to the recent Firefighter Procedures Loft Manual, the buildings may be all of the following classes of construction except which?

A) Class 1

B) Class 2

C) Class 3

D) Class 4

D) Class 4 (INCORRECT)

(Lofts 1.2)

* Lofts can be Class 1 / 2 / 3 or Class 6.

21

According to the recently issued FDNY manual on Loft buildings, at 1,100 degrees Fahrenheit, cast iron loses how much of its original strength?

A) 42%

B) 58%

C) 66%

D) 75%

B) 58%

(FFP Lofts 5.1.10 F)

22

Which type of loft construction is the least common type from the list below?

A) Fireproofs

B) Cast-iron

C) Mill (heavy timber)

D) None of the above

C) Mill (heavy timber)

(FFP Lofts 2)

23

Which type of loft construction is the newest and most common type from the list below?

A) Fireproofs

B) Cast-iron

C) Mill (Heavy Timber)

D) None of the above

A) Fireproofs

(FFP Lofts 2)

24

Which is an incorrect construction characteristic for older cast iron lofts (1840s to 1870s) from the list below?

A) Maximum 7 to 8 stories in height having front and rear exterior walls of brick, stone or iron.

B) Frontage is usually 25 feet (indicating no interior columns) with depths reaching 90 feet and frontage on only one street.

C) These structures have one unenclosed wooden stair, often winding around the elevator shaft or one straight run stair.

D) Fire escapes can be found on the front and the rear, however not on the sides.

D) Fire escapes can be found on the front and the rear, however not on the sides. (INCORRECT)

(FFP Lofts 4)

* Fire escapes can be found in the front, rear, AS WELL AS THE SIDES
(corner buildings)

25

Which is an incorrect construction characteristic for newer cast iron lofts (1880s to 1901) from the list below?

A) They may be built higher (8-12 stories) and wider than older cast iron lofts with common dimensions being 50' wide by 90' deep.

B) All exterior walls have a minimum 3 hour fire resistive rating.

C) Interior structural elements consist of unprotected cast iron columns and wrought iron girders and beams supporting masonry or wooden floors.

D) Generally, there are two interior stairways located inside enclosed walls having a 2 hour fire resistive rating.

C) Interior structural elements consist of unprotected cast iron columns and wrought iron girders and beams supporting masonry or wooden floors. (INCORRECT)

(FFP Lofts 4)

* Interior structural elements consist of PROTECTED cast iron columns
and wrought iron girders and beams supporting masonry or wooden
floors.

26

Which is an incorrect construction characteristic for mill lofts from the list below?

A) Mill Lofts also known as heavy timber lofts, range from 4-6 stories in height having all 4 exterior walls load bearing and constructed of brick, concrete, block or stone.

B) Beams and girders supporting roof rafters and roof trusses are a minimum 6" in any direction.

C) Fire tower stairs and elevators are placed in the inner part of the building.

D) Automatic sprinkler and standpipe systems, as required by law, are supplied by either a city water main or gravity tank located on the roof.

C) Fire tower stairs and elevators are placed in the inner part of the building. (INCORRECT)

(FFP Lofts 4)

* Fire tower stairs and elevators are on the PERIMETER of building.

27

Which is an incorrect construction characteristic of fireproof lofts from the list below?

A) These buildings range from 10-15 stories in height. Rectangular dimensions are usually between 50-100 feet or more in width and 75 to 200 feet in depth.

B) Interior stairs are enclosed; one or more fire towers may be provided in buildings over 55 feet in height.

C) Fireproof lofts may have exterior screened stairways leading either to the front or rear of the building.

D) Windows are operable although central HVAC systems are more commonly found in these type lofts.

B) Interior stairs are enclosed; one or more fire towers may be provided in buildings over 55 feet in height. (INCORRECT)

(FFP Lofts 4)

* One or more fire towers may be provided in buildings OVER
SEVENTY FIVE (75) FEET IN HEIGHT.

28

Which is an incorrect item from the list below about elevator shafts in older cast iron lofts?

A) Passenger and freight elevators are normally located within the area of the front wall. They may be found on either side or in the middle of the building.

B) If a loading dock is present, freight elevators may be found 20 feet inward from the front of the building.

C) Freight elevators will not be installed with fireman service capabilities. They are not initially used during fire operations due to their proximity to rubbish removal areas,Mohican are commonly fire origin locations.

D) Elevator shaft windows may have boards across their lower portion, placed to serve as a warning of an open shaft. These windows will not look identical to the other windows in the front facade.

D) Elevator shaft windows may have boards across their lower portion, placed to serve as a warning of an open shaft. These windows will not look identical to the other windows in the front facade. (INCORRECT)

(FFP Lofts 5.1.2)

* These windows look IDENTICAL to the windows on the front facade.

29

In older cast iron lofts some sub-level openings provide direct access to the below grade level of the building, which can be more than ______ feet below the sidewalk.

A) 5

B) 10

C) 15

D) 20

D) 20

(FFP Lofts 5.1.5)