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Flashcards in Chapters 1 & 2 Deck (78)
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Absolute monarchy

unlimited power to rule people


Constitutional monarchy

share government powers with elected legislatures or serve as the ceremonial leaders of their government



a small group holds powers



rule is by the people


Direct democracy

people govern themselves by voting on issues individually


Representative democracy

people elect representatives and give them the responsibility and power to make laws and conduct government



voters are source of government's authority


Characteristics of Democracy (4 things)

- Individual liberty
- Majority rule with minority rights
- Free elections
- Competing political parties


free enterprise

opportunity to control one's economic decisions provides a base for making independent political decisions


civil society

a complex network of voluntary associations, economic groups, religious organization, and many other independent groups


Economic system decisions (3 things)

- what and how much should be produced
- how goods and services should be produced
- who gets the goods and services that are produced


Main characteristics of Capitalism (5 things)

- private ownership and control of property and economic resources
- free enterprise
- competition among business
- freedom of choice
- the possibility of profits


What did Adam Smith believe?

government should stay out of economy


3 main goals of socialism

- the distribution of wealth and economic opportunity equally among people
- society's control of all major decisions about production
- public ownership of most land



one class would evolve, property would all be held in common, no need for government


limited government

power of monarch was limited, not absolute


Petition of Right

Document that severely limited the king's powers


English Bill of Rights (6 things)

- set clear limits on what a ruler could and couldn't do
- monarchs didn't have absolute power
- must have Parliament's consent to suspend laws, levy taxes, or maintain an army
- can't interfere with parliamentary elections and debates
- people have right to petition the government and to have fair and speedy trial by a jury of their peers
- people shouldn't be subject to cruel and unusual punishments or excessive fines and bail


What did Locke, Voltaire, and Rousseau believe?

People should contract among themselves to form governments to protect their natural rights


Key parts of the nation's system of government (3 things)

- a written constitution
- a legislature of elected representatives
- separation of powers between the governor and the legislature


Mayflower Compact

Pilgrims made their own laws for the new land


Great Fundamentals

1st basic system of laws in English colonies


Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

laid out plan for government that gave the people the right to elect the governor, judges, and representatives to make laws


Stamp Act

tax on docs, pamphlets, newspapers, and playing cards


Intolerable Acts

closed Boston Harbor, withdrew right of Massachusetts colony to govern itself


Key parts of Declaration of Independence (3 things)

- to justify the revolution and to put forth the founding principles of the new nation
- human liberty and consent of the governed
- statement of purpose and basic human rights, lists specific complaints against King George lll, colonists' determination to separate from Britain


Plan for central government (2 things)

- unicameral, single chamber, Congress
- a committee of one delegate from each state managed the government when Congress was not assembled


Powers given to Congress under the Articles (10 things)

- make war and peace
- send and receive ambassadors
- enter into treaties
- raise and equip an army
- maintain an army by requesting troops from the states
- appoint senior military officers
- fix standards of weight and measures
- regulate Indian affairs
- establish post offices
- decide certain disputes among the states


Weaknesses of the Articles (7 things)

- Congress didn't have the power to levy or collect taxes
- Congress couldn't regulate trade
- Congress couldn't force anyone to obey the laws it passed to abide by the Articles
- laws needed the approval of 9 out of 13 states
- changing the Articles required the consent of all the states
- central government didn't have any executive branch
- government had no national court system


Achievements of the Articles (3 things)

- Development of lands west of the Appalachians
- A peace treaty with Great Britain
- Having a single permanent secretary for the department of Foreign Affairs, one for department of War, one for the Marines, and one for the Treasury