Chapters 1 & 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapters 1 & 2 Deck (78)
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31

Absolute monarchy

unlimited power to rule people

32

Constitutional monarchy

share government powers with elected legislatures or serve as the ceremonial leaders of their government

33

Oligarchy

a small group holds powers

34

Democracy

rule is by the people

35

Direct democracy

people govern themselves by voting on issues individually

36

Representative democracy

people elect representatives and give them the responsibility and power to make laws and conduct government

37

Republic

voters are source of government's authority

38

Characteristics of Democracy (4 things)

- Individual liberty
- Majority rule with minority rights
- Free elections
- Competing political parties

39

free enterprise

opportunity to control one's economic decisions provides a base for making independent political decisions

40

civil society

a complex network of voluntary associations, economic groups, religious organization, and many other independent groups

41

Economic system decisions (3 things)

- what and how much should be produced
- how goods and services should be produced
- who gets the goods and services that are produced

42

Main characteristics of Capitalism (5 things)

- private ownership and control of property and economic resources
- free enterprise
- competition among business
- freedom of choice
- the possibility of profits

43

What did Adam Smith believe?

government should stay out of economy

44

3 main goals of socialism

- the distribution of wealth and economic opportunity equally among people
- society's control of all major decisions about production
- public ownership of most land

45

communism

one class would evolve, property would all be held in common, no need for government

46

limited government

power of monarch was limited, not absolute

47

Petition of Right

Document that severely limited the king's powers

48

English Bill of Rights (6 things)

- set clear limits on what a ruler could and couldn't do
- monarchs didn't have absolute power
- must have Parliament's consent to suspend laws, levy taxes, or maintain an army
- can't interfere with parliamentary elections and debates
- people have right to petition the government and to have fair and speedy trial by a jury of their peers
- people shouldn't be subject to cruel and unusual punishments or excessive fines and bail

49

What did Locke, Voltaire, and Rousseau believe?

People should contract among themselves to form governments to protect their natural rights

50

Key parts of the nation's system of government (3 things)

- a written constitution
- a legislature of elected representatives
- separation of powers between the governor and the legislature

51

Mayflower Compact

Pilgrims made their own laws for the new land

52

Great Fundamentals

1st basic system of laws in English colonies

53

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

laid out plan for government that gave the people the right to elect the governor, judges, and representatives to make laws

54

Stamp Act

tax on docs, pamphlets, newspapers, and playing cards

55

Intolerable Acts

closed Boston Harbor, withdrew right of Massachusetts colony to govern itself

56

Key parts of Declaration of Independence (3 things)

- to justify the revolution and to put forth the founding principles of the new nation
- human liberty and consent of the governed
- statement of purpose and basic human rights, lists specific complaints against King George lll, colonists' determination to separate from Britain

57

Plan for central government (2 things)

- unicameral, single chamber, Congress
- a committee of one delegate from each state managed the government when Congress was not assembled

58

Powers given to Congress under the Articles (10 things)

- make war and peace
- send and receive ambassadors
- enter into treaties
- raise and equip an army
- maintain an army by requesting troops from the states
- appoint senior military officers
- fix standards of weight and measures
- regulate Indian affairs
- establish post offices
- decide certain disputes among the states

59

Weaknesses of the Articles (7 things)

- Congress didn't have the power to levy or collect taxes
- Congress couldn't regulate trade
- Congress couldn't force anyone to obey the laws it passed to abide by the Articles
- laws needed the approval of 9 out of 13 states
- changing the Articles required the consent of all the states
- central government didn't have any executive branch
- government had no national court system

60

Achievements of the Articles (3 things)

- Development of lands west of the Appalachians
- A peace treaty with Great Britain
- Having a single permanent secretary for the department of Foreign Affairs, one for department of War, one for the Marines, and one for the Treasury