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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Deck (26)
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1

theocracy

government dominated by religion

2

ideologies

basic beliefs about government

3

coalition government

formed by several parties who combine forces to obtain a majority

4

Parties before the Civil War

- Federalists
- Democratic-Republicans (soon became Democrats and Whigs ---> Republicans)

5

Parties after the Civil War

- Democrats
- Republicans (majority)

6

Parties during and after the Great Depression

- Democrats (majority)
- Republicans (controlled both houses)

7

single-issue party

focuses exclusively on one major social, economic, or moral issue

8

ideological party

focuses on overall change in society rather than on one issue

9

splinter party

splits away from one of the major parties because of some disagreement

10

American Independent Party (2)

- won 13.5% of the vote
- many believe this swayed the election of Nixon

11

Obstacles to 3rd Parties (3)

- difficult to get on the ballot
- single member districts = no matter how many candidates compete in a district, only one will win
- proportional representation = several officials are elected to represent voters in an area

12

How candidates are elected (4)

- Caucuses
- Nominating Conventions
- Primary Elections
- Petition Method

13

Caucuses

private meetings of party leaders

14

Nominating Conventions

an official public meeting of a party to choose candidates for office

15

direct primary

an election in which party members select people to run in the general election

16

closed primary

only members of a political party can vote

17

open primary

all voters may participate, even if they don't belong to the party, but they can vote in only one party's primary

18

plurality

the largest number of votes in an election

19

runoff primary

a 2nd primary election between the 2 candidates who received the most votes in the 1st primary

20

The Petition Method

a person announces his or her candidacy and files petitions that a specified number of voters have signed in order to be placed on the ballot

21

3 generalizations about presidential primaries

- they may be a delegate selection process and/or a presidential preference poll
- either the candidate who wins the primary gets all the state's convention delegates (winner takes all), or each candidate gets delegates based on how many popular votes he or she receives in the primary
- delegates selected on the basis of the popular vote may be required to support a certain candidate at the national convention

22

Criticisms of Presidential Primaries (3)

- take too long
- focuses more on candidate's image than issues
- one sided victories

23

Rules Committee

proposes rules for convention procedure and sets the convention's order of business

24

Credentials Committee

must approve the delegations from each state

25

Committee on Permanent Organization

selects the permanent chairperson and other officials for the convention

26

Platform Committee

the writing of the party's platform (a statement of its principles, beliefs, and positions on vital issues)