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1

what is anxiety

a negative emotions that is elicited following appraisal of a situation or event
- it is not arousal

2

two components of anxiety

1. cognitive anxiety: mental component of anxiety (worries an fears)
2. somatic anxiety: physical component of anxiety (perceptions of body states)

3

arousal

physiological and psychological activation that varies on a continuum from deep sleep to peak activation or frenzy
-can be both good and bad situations

4

anxiety vs arousal

researchers used to equate anxiety and arousal; not the case
-anxiety involves an evaluative component where demands of situation exceed resources

5

social anxiety

-when we are concerned about neg evaluations of others
-subforms of social anxiety
1. competitive anxiety: when we are worried about our performance being evaluated by others
2. social physique anxiety: when we are worried about others evaluating our body (physique) in social settings

6

trait vs state anxiety

trait: a general propensity to perceive a variety of situations as threatening
state: anxiety that is experienced in a particular moment and can change from moment to moment

7

anxiety occurs when

demands of a situations are perceived to outweigh the resources that an individual feels they have

8

dimensions of anxiety

1. intensity of symptoms
2. frequency of cognitive intrusions (how often do anxious thoughts occupy your mind)
3. directional interpretation of symptoms
this is influenced by
- personality
-psychological skills
-experience
-sport type

9

personal sources of anxiety

1. experience & skill level
2. gender
3. trait anxiety
4. efficaciousness
5. self-regulation strategies

10

experience and skill level

-no difference in intensity of anxiety symptoms
-differ in how they interpret anxiety
-more skilled/experienced athletes see anxiety as more facilitative

11

gender

-research is mixed re gender differences in state and trait anxiety
-women athletes/exercisers report higher levels of social physique anxiety than men

12

trait anxiety

report more intense anxiety symptoms

13

efficaciousness

-confidence
less pre-competition anxiety
view anxiety as facilitative
-concern what others think
more state and trait anxiety in sport
-concern about body weight and shape
more social physique anxiety in pa settings
-less social anxiety
-less social physique anxiety

14

self-regulation strategies

-those who use coping skills to deal with anxiety do have less pre-compeition cognitive and somatic anxiety
-self handicapping

15

self-handicapping

behaviors that are used in performance settings to excuse any failure that may occur in advance
-higher state and trait anxiety
-in advance: before playing in the game: i slept bad, don't feel good, injury

16

athletes/ exercisers show elevated intensity of anxiety when

-they are novice
-female
-high trait anxiety
-low self-confidence/self-efficacy
-poor self presentational beliefs
-poor self regulatory (coping skills)
-use self handicapping strategies

17

enviornmental sources of anxiety

1. temporal patterning of anxiety in sport setting
-cognitive and somatic anxiety
2. the physical enviornement
3. the social enviornment

18

temporal patterning of anxiety in sport setting

cognitive anxiety: remains constant and elevated until onset of compeition when it steadily declines
somatic anxiety: remains low until just hours befoe comp when it rises, but falls upon onset of competition

19

the physical environment (exercise)

mirrors lead to more anxiety, especially when:
one trait is anxious; inactive; simple tasks ( time to look in the mirror

20

the social enviornement

-presence of others leads to state anxiety when social ohysique anxiety is high
-women (not men) experience more social physique with opposite gender
-more attractive leader= greater social physique anxiety
-enriched leadership style= less social anxiety

21

does social physique anxiety make people exercise more or less

research for both answers
sometimes yes, sometimes no
social physique anxiety among older women is only related to low levels of exercise when self-presentational efficacy levels are low
-similar finds with adolescent girls
lead to lower enjoyment and effort among high school students only when coupled with higher external regulation

22

moderator variable

does social physique anxiety make people exercise ore or less
-influence an otherwise simple relationship between two variables

23

social physique anxiety has also been found to influence

-excessive weightifting at the gym among men
-yet other studies have not supported a relationship between social physique anxiety and excessive exercise

24

zones of optimal function

-athletes demonstrate a lot of variability in terms of what level of state anxiety is the best for their performance
-athletes have an optimal zone of competitive anxiety for performance
-so optimal zone of functioning depends on the individual, not the sport or activity

25

ZOF theory allows us to understand

-that the realtionship between anxiety and performance differs between individuals
-that anxiety is not always detrimental to performance
-over 120 sport publications using ZOF

26

limitations of ZOF

does not explain why people have different ZOF
identifying zones usually relies on retrospective recall

27

cusp catathrophe theory

three dimensional model
-physiological arousal
-cognitive arousal
-performance
model outlines 5 conditions

28

condition 1

when cognitive anxiety (worry concern) is low, there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between arousal and performance

29

condition 2

when physiological arousal is low, performance is enhanced when cognitive state anxiety (worry concern( high

30

condition 3

when physiological anxiety is high, performance is worsened when: cognitive state anxiety is high
so, when you are experiencing physiological arousal, you want to keep your cognitive anxiety in check (low)