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-groups are not the same as a collection of individuals
-who makes up the group is an important variable in group settings


group dynamics

-the study of the nature of groups and their development, and the interrelationship of groups with individuals, other groups and larger institutions


assembly affect

variations in group behavior that are a result of the particular combination of individuals within a group
-groups are not crowds-crowds probably will not be together again


what makes up an effective group?

1. decision making
2. communication
3. cohesion


decision making

basing group decision- making on equal participation and equal participation and equal power of all members majority rules
-be mindful of group think: when a desire for uniformity and harmony overrides independent consideration of all possible options
group think ex) train hard, the most training, super far
-open to changing training, encourage to question group processes



-communication is directly important for team perform
-communication influences how the group functions as a whole



"the dynamic process which is reflected in the tendency for a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its goals and objectives"
-forces to bind members to their groups
-identified as the most important variable among small groups
-enhanced cohesion is related to key outcomes for both individuals on the team and the team collectively


4 key characteristics of cohesion

1. cohesion is dynamic (versus static)
-still cohesive but maybe for different reasons
-instrumental vs social (stop playing now friends still)
2. cohesion is multidimensional
-many different aspects
3. instrumental
-competitive, winning, goals
4. cohesion if affective
- friends, get along socially


a model of group cohesion

task aspect: orientation towards achieving the group objectives
social aspect: orientation towards developing and maintaining social relationship
-also takes in individual and group aspects


correlates of group cohesion

1. environmental factors
-I am happy with this teams motivation to succeed, i like this teams styles of play
2. leadership factors
-I enjoy my social interactions with this group, some of my best friends play on this team
3. team factors
-our group is united in the belief about the benefits of the PA offered in this program, we all take responsibility for any loss/poor performance on our team
4. personal factors
-our team would like to spend time together in off season, members of our PA often socialize during exercise time


environmental correlates

group size and cohesion
-inverse relationship between group size and cohesion


leadership correlates

-pass ball even though you could get the point
-run slower so the team can all run together


leader's decision style

-involving team-members in decision making (democratic leadership) leads to greater cohesion than the leader making decisions along (autocratic)
-supported across many sports
-results are similar for coach and athlete leaders


team building correlates

programs promoting an increase sense of unity and cohesiveness within a team


team building strategies

1. target the group/team environment
-have a group name: distinctiveness
-have a group uniform:
-provide opportunities for the team to socialize: togetherness
2. group structure
-have a specific devoted places or sports ex) dressing room or exercise class:
-clearly defined roles: role clarity
-promote regular attendance and work ethic:
-concern for team mates/group members: group norms
3. group processes
-ask regulars to help out new members: sacrifice
-ask stronger player to let a new player have a chance: -form sub-groups to work on skills:
-do partner activities: interaction, communication, cooperation
-form group goals as a group


note about hazing

athletes who do or witness more hazing-type activities also report that their teams are less cohesive


personal characteristics correlates

adherence: correlates with cohesion in both exercise and sport settings
intention to return: cohesiveness of team correlates to intention to return the next year and actually returning
-independent of team success
individual effort: perceptions of cohesiveness relate to individual effort
-self report, max oxygen consumption
social loafing: the reduction in individual effort when individual work collectively compared to when they work alone
-cohesion neg related to social loafing
individual sacrifice: pos correlated with perceptions of cohesion
self-handicapping: using strategies that protect one's self esteem by providing excuses for forth-coming events
-neg related to cohesion
-athletes may blame team to protect themselves


team/group correlates

team success: pos but small relationship between cohesion and group success
relationship strengthens when:
-cohesion is of task variety
-groups were naturally vs artificially formed
-when performance is defined as a behavior versus the results of a behavior
collective efficacy: a group's shared perceptions of the groups capabilities to succeed at a given task
-pos correlates to team cohesion for elite but not recreational teams
psychological momentum "big mo": a perception on the part of team members that the team is progressing towards its goal
-pos correlated with team cohesion only in one study
athletes starting status: correlates with team cohesion but only for those are unsuccessful teams