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1

why PA interventions

PA can:
-prevent the onset of disease
-prolong life
-reduce symptoms of a disease
-reverse the course of a disease
-promote mental health and well-being
-treat mental illness
-PA is one of the best ways you can influence your health positively

2

what % of Canadians are insufficiently active?

about 85% of adults and 93% of children are insufficiently active
-physical activity is very costly to the taxpayer

3

determinant and intervention research

-examines factors that affect or are associated with physical activity behavior
ex) demographic; social; environment; genetic factors
-adapted ecological model of determinants of physical activity

4

intervention research (determinants in intervention research)

-seeks to manipulate factors that affect physical activity behavior
-usually targets determinants, so determinants research informs intervention research
-identify determinants
-target determinants in interventions
-info is passed onto the public

5

intervention research involving PA

physical activity can play two roles in intervention research:
1. PA as an outcome
-part take in physical activity to improve
2. PA as a treatment
intervention designed to increase/improve PA- change in PA- exercise intervention- change in functioning health status or quality of life

6

behavioral approaches to increasing PA

-goal setting
-imagery
-planning
-self-monitoring
-relaspe prevention

7

goal setting for PA

-helpful for all exercisers
-but particularly important when people are adopting the behavior
-set both short-term and long-term goals to maintain commitment

8

planning 2 types

-action and coping plans are designed to bridge the intention-behavior gap
1) action planning: forming concrete plans that specify when, where, and how a person will translate exercise intentions into actions ex) i will exercise MWF at noon, in the campus gym by running on the treadmill for 30 min at 70% of my maximal heart rate
2) coping planning: how will you cope with potential barriers or obstacles that may get in the way of your goals (injury, school) ex) if i have to finish my assignment i will get off the bus 20 minutes before my regular stop to walk on the way home from campus

9

planning research support

the combinations of high levels of coping planning and action planning are associated with increase in physical activity
-utilizing plans allows us to think ahead about any obstacles or situations we may face and makes us better prepared

10

self-monitoring

-keeping a record of ones own exercise behavior, in order to track progress and identify barriers to goal achievement
-people can self-monitor PA type, frequency, duration, or intensity, thoughts, and emotions
-lots of tech options: step counts on phone, GPS enabled device, fit bit

11

relapse

when individuals fail to resume regular exercise after a lapse in activity

12

abstinence violation effect

when a initial lapse causes the exerciser to believe that all future hope of behavior change is lost and that the entire exercise regimen might as well be abandoned

13

relapse prevention strategies

-self talk: used to increase confidence, regulate arousal or focus efforts to overcome high risk situations ex) if i go to the gym at lunch break i will be more productive this afternoon
-imagery: used to muster motivation and commitment to stick to ones exercise goals ex) imagine what one will feel like when one is finished exercising ex) imagine what one will look like after 6 months
-plan ahead for lapses: make arrangements with a friend to exercise, stay in a hotel with a gym, set out clothing for morning workout
-minimize abstinence violation effect: cognitive restructuring- changing how one thinks about the lapse
this is a normal part of exercise

14

effectiveness of behavioral interventions

-the most effective way to increase PA
-five times more effective than any other type of PA intervention
-produce approx 35% increase in time spent being physically active
-efficacy shown for:
both men and women
wide range of ethnic cultural and other specific populations
across a variety of settings (schools, work place)

15

theory based interventions

-intervention research may or may not involve theory
-theory based research: interventions that are based on the theoretically-proposed relationships among constructs

16

why use theory in intervention research

-theory provides info on which determinants makes sense to target in interventions
-theory outlines the relationship between various determinants
-theory can sometimes tell us how to target a determinant
-theories help us explain how or why an intervention worked or did not

17

how can intervention research help theory

interventions provide real world tests of theory (that can lead to the refinement of theory)

18

intervening with the theory of planned behavior

1. changing attitudes towards
2.manipulating subjective norms
3. fostering perceptions of behavioral control
4. bridging the intention behavior gap

19

changing attitudes towards

-if we can impact attitudes, we should impact intentions and in turn behavior
-focus on the benefits of PA:
-research shows that physical activity can reduce your risk of many chronic conditions and leaves you feeling revitalized
-help people value/enjoy PA
-enjoying our physical activity strengthens out intentions to exercise

20

fostering perceptions of behavioral control

-if we can impact control beliefs, we should impact behavior directly as well as indirectly through intentions
-enhance perceptions of control:
-behavioral strategies
-action plans; goal setting; self-monitoring ect

21

bridging the intention behavior gap

-TBP does not tell us what bridges this gap: this leaves room for adding to/improving the theory
-implementation intentions:
when i get in the car i will drive to the gym

22

intervening with social cognitive theory: past performance

-past performance is a source of self efficacy
-behavioral strategies that set people up for success:
goal setting; planning; have people reflect on their past

23

intervening with social cognitive theory: motivational interviewing

-is a counseling approach that provides people with the opportunity to talk about and resolve their mixed feelings about exercise
-help people talk themselves into change and then provide info on how to change

24

keys of motivational interviewing

-expressing empathy: ability to identify with another person and understand his/her feelings
-develop discepency: an awareness of a difference between current behavior and their broader goals and values
-eliciting change talk: gets the client to come up with and elaborate on their own reasons for change
-supporting self-efficacy: target sources of self-efficacy, including past successful experiences
-note: motivational interviewing is a key way to deliver many behavioral intervention strategies

25

intervening with social cognitive theory: varcarious experiences

-success stories
-how could you create your own varcarious experience oppruitunties
-imagery (be your own varcarious experience)
-self-monitor to track success

26

intervening with social cognitive theory: social perusion

-PA instructor point out progress
-self-talk

27

intervening with social cognitive theory: physiological

cognitive restructuring of physical symptoms
-self-monitor mood or affectrive states pre and post exercise

28

how might you support your own physiological needs

autonomy: find ways a person can determine their own behavior
competence: foster sense of control/competence
relatedness: foster social connections with others through activity

29

health action process approach

-this approach combines aspects of other theories
-suggests differences in motivational processes underlying
1) intentions
2) behavior

30

health action process approach: intentions

-self-efficacy for the task
-outcome expectations
-risk perceptions
-barriers and resources