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normative discontent

-almost everyone in western cultures reports dissatisfaction with their bodies, leading to the term normative discontent


body image: 4 dimensional construct

1. perceptual component- i see myself as being short
2. cognitive component- i'm pretty good at doing chinups
3. affective component- i am ashamed when i think about my biceps
4. behavioral component- i wear tank tops because i'm proud of my arms



-the picture of our own body we form in our mind
-disorted mirror, open door, computer images



-how we think about or evaluate our body in terms of appearance and function
-asks about satisfaction with body part or function



-the emotions/feelings we have about our appearance and function
-shame, guilt, pride, embarrassment, envy



-things we do that reflect our perceptions, thoughts, and feelings about our body
-whether or not you go to the beach or wear a tight shirt


is body image always bad

-no, it can be both
-you may feel good about how you look and what your body can do


body image investment

-an individuals certain beliefs or assumptions about the importance, meaning and influence or appearance in his/her life
-how invested in one's body image is affects how one's body image affects them


body image in men/women

-research suggests that women experience more neg body image than men
-findings may be misleading: scales often do not reflect aspects of body image that are important to men
-many men want to be bigger (muscle) cognitive component


body image pathologies

-body image dissatisfaction is quite normal and usually not problematic
-in some cases body image can cause clinical levels of distress
-often relates to facial features, veins, hair, breat size, genitals, muscle size
-flaw to others is either minor or unobservable
-causes severe distress or impaired functioning
1. body dysmorphic disorder
2. muscle dymorphia
3. eating disorders (bulimia, anorexia, binge-eating)


body dysmorphic disorder

a clinical (recognized) disorder reflecting a preoccupation with an imagined defect in appearance


muscle dysmorphia

-a specified condition within body dysmorphic disorder represented by a chronic pre-occupation with insufficient muscularity and inadequate mass
-experience themselves as much smaller/thinner than they are
-associated with much distress over presenting the body to others
-extreme weight training and focus on diet
-impaired daily functioning
-high risk of abusing physique-enhancing drugs
-more common among men than women


eating disorders

1. bulimia: mental disorder involving recurrent binge eating and purging( an involve excessive exercise)
2. anorexia nervosa: mental disorder involving extreme food restriction and refusal to maintain a healthy body weight, fear of gaining weight, and unrealistic perceptions of current body weight
3. binge-eating disorder: compulsive and excessive over-eating and purging


theories linking body image and physical activity

1. sociocultural factors
2. self-presentation
3. social comparison theory


sociocultural theories

-social agents convey social ideals, norms, and standards
-media, parents, peers: triarite influence model
media: repeated exposure to ideal body images can promote self-criticism, women how view images that focus on appearance feel worse about their bodies than women who view neutral images
facebook: current self-presentation
-frequent selfie posting is associated with poor body image
family and peer influence; setting appearance norms
-modelling behavior
-encouraging weight control
-giving approval/disapproval



-a goal directed process involving two discrete processes:
1. impression motivation: how motivated individuals are to control how they are perceived by others
2. impression construction: creating an image that one wishes to convey to others with the strategies individuals use to create this impression
-self presentation can both motivate or discourage physical activity and body image may be behind both of these


social comparison theory

-downward social comparisons
-upward social comparisons
-people who make more upwards social comparisons related to their body appearance and function also report greater body image dissatisfaction


factors associated with development of neg body image

-sport involvement and type
-social and physical environmental factors



-women and men experience body image differently
-women may experience greater levels of body-related same, guilt, envy and drive for thinness than men
-men may experience greater levels of drive for muscularity



-over weight individuals are more likely to report body image dissatisfaction
-under which is first- over weight or dissatisfaction



-often argued that body image concerns are greater in western countries
-others argue that this is no longer the case; western ideals are adopted world wide
-Canadian immigrants report struggles with pushing western and their own cultural ideals



-people with chronic illness report greater body dissatisfaction than people without
-chronic illness can lead to changes in physical function and appearance
-yet for some people, illness may cause them to re-valuate what is important about their bodies


sport involvement and type

-individuals involved in PA report lower affective and cognitive body image than inactive individuals


social and physical environment factors

-some factors worsen body image concerns
-exercising in front of a mirror
-exercising with a physique salient instructor


body image outcomes

1. physical activity- again, promotion or avoidance
2. health-compromising behaviors- surgery: extreme dieting or exercising, substance abuse
3. mental health: higher levels of depression