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1

what is personality

-the overall organization of phychological characteristics-thinking, feeling, and behaving
-that differentiates us from others and leads us to act consistency across time and situations
-aka disposition
-emphasizes individual differences
-relatively stable

2

traits

-a relatively stable characteristic or quality that may represent a portion of one's personality; a quality used to explain an individual's behavior across time
ex) perfection, neuroticism, extraversion

3

traits are the building blocks of

personality

4

personality traits

-most traits are normally distributed in a population so most people have moderate levels of any given trait

5

digmans "5 factor model" or "big 5"

OCEAN
1. openess to experience- curiosity, tendency to seek out new experiences
2. conscientiousness- achievement, striving, self-discipline
3. extraversion- assertiveness and energetic approach o the world
4. agreeableness- compliance, positive approach towards others
5. neuroticism- tension, nervousness, implusiveness, self-consciousness, hostility

6

behaviorists

consistent behavior patterns (personailty) develops through reward and punishment

7

social learning theories

behavior patterns (personality) develops through inner drives of the person
ex) goals, beliefs, expectations

8

environment

rewards and punishments modelling from others; social environment

9

person situation debate

person side of the debate: personality traits lead to stable predictable behavior
situation side of the debate: behavior differs depending on the situation
-neither personality traits nor situations alone are good predictors of behavior

10

the interactonist approach

behavior is determined by an interplay between the individual and the situation
-researchers seek to understand how traits affect behavior in different situations
-personality is most likely to express itself in situations that are relevant to the person

11

maslow's hierarchy of needs

-physiological needs
-safety needs
-belonging and love needs
-esteem needs
-self-actualization

12

personality in sport/exercise

-weak or little evidence can predict:
-sport performance
-athletes from non athletes
-spot preference
-but personality does interact with other factors

13

is there an exercise personality

-rhodes and smith 92006 meta analysis
-extraversion; conscientiousness (+)
-neurotisism (-)
-no relationship with openess and agreeableness
-but these relationships are small

14

risk taking/sensation seeking

-risky sports may fulfill a need for excitement among risk-takers
-risk taking athletes score higher than non- risking taking athletes on
-emotional stability, conscientiousness, and energy

15

competitiveness

-desire to engage in and strive for success
-competitive people showed more exercise intensity when playing "exer games" when they competed against a competitor

16

athletes score higher than non-athletes on 3 forms of competitiveness

-desire to strive for success
-focus on winning
-focus on personal standard

17

perfectionism

-can help or hinder sport and exercise performance, depending on the type of perfection
-personal standards perfectionism: high personal standards and self-oriented achievement striving
-evaluative concern perfectionism: involves concern about negative social evaluation

18

perfectionism continued

-high personal standards perfectionism + low evaluation concerns perfectionism= lowest burnout
-low personal standards perfectionism+high evaluative concerns perfectionism= highburnout
high+high or low+low = medium

19

mental toughness

-personal characteristics that allow people to cope with stress and anxiety while remaining focused on competition demands

20

4 C's model

-control
-confidence
-commitment
-challenge

21

personality effecting sports

-personality exerts, at most, small impact on sport and exercise behavior, thoughts and emotions
-little evidence of a distinct athletic or exerciser personality
-a number of personality traits and characteristics have been associated with exercise behavior, thoughts and emotions but all with small influence

22

how helpful is personality research for increasing performance or exercise levels

-identify at risk people
-match personality to appropriate activities