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1

motivation is

an internal process (needs, thoughts, emotions) that gives you behavior energy direction

2

motivation is influenced by

-personal
-cognitive
-environmental factors

3

operant conditioning

-learning tat occurs through behavior being reinforced or punished

4

positive reinforcement

-any factor that increases the likelihood of a behavior

5

negative reinforcement

-any factor that, through its removal, increases the likelihood of a behavior

6

punishment

-any factor that decreases the likelihood of a behavior

7

vacarious conditioning

-motivation that comes from observing the outcomes of others behavior

8

cognitive behavioral approaches

-our cognition's influence our emotions and behavior
-our behavior can influence our thought and emotions
-reciprocal relationship between cognitions/emotions and behavior

9

theory of planned behavior

-widely used theory
-highlights the personal and social influences on behavior
-first used to study voting behavior

10

intention

-readiness to change a behavior

11

attitudes

-positive or negative evaluation of engaging in a behavior

12

behavioral beliefs

-consideration of the effective and instrumental consequences of engaging in a behavior and the evaluation of those consequences

13

subjective norms

-perceived social pressures to preform a behavior from person and or environmental sources

14

normative beliefs

-perceptions of the values and importance that significant others place on the behavior

15

descriptive norms

whether significant others engage in the behavior

16

injunction norms

whether one believes that significant others think they should engage in the behavior

17

control beliefs

perceived barriers and facilitators of behavior

18

perceived behavioral control

the extent to which one is free to do the behavior
-PBC influences behavior directly and indirectly

19

self efficacy

perception of your abilities to do something
-not self confidence
-belief in ones capabilities to organize and execute the course of action required to produce an outcome/ goal
-core construct within social cognitive theory
-foundation for human motivation, well-being and personal accomplishment

20

vicarious experience more likely

the more similar that person is to you the more likely you are to do the activity yourself

21

cognitive approaches

emphasize the role of cognition's and beliefs (thoughts) in motivation
-individual interpretation of their environment that influences why people do things
-thought patterns can be altered to change behavior

22

TPB: research

-TPB has been widely applied in sport and exercise contexts review studies support the relationships outline in this theory
-attitudes subjective norms and perceived behavioral about exercise control are predictions of intentions
-subjective norms are the weakest of these 3 predictors of intention
-intention to engage in physical activity predicts activity behavior approx 1/3 times (intention-behavior gap)
-support for theory in a variety of populations

23

social cognitive theory

-albert bandura
-another widely known and used theory to understand motivation
-motivation is the product of an interplay between the person, behavior, and the environment: reciprocal determinism
-many constructs embedded within this theory: goals, self-regulation, self-efficacy

24

goals

ambitions that direct peoples behaviors

25

self regulation

behavior is self directed in that is initiated, monitored, and evaluated by the individual in a way that is consistent with accomplishing goals

26

sources of self efficacy

-past performance: when coaches start off easy, help you do well so you know you will be able to do it
-varcarious experiences: seeing other people do it makes you think you can do it, more closely related the person is to you the more likely you are to do it
-social persuasion: people telling you that you can do it, they believe it
-physiological states: when physiological info tells you, you can/cant do something ex) sweaty, sore, hurt
-affective: run feels good so you do it again

27

support for social cognitive theory self efficacy variable

-self-efficacy is reliably related to behavior outcomes such as
-sport performance
-exercise adherence
-physical activity among children

28

self-determination theory

-deci and ryan
-theory of human motivation and development
-main focus: extent to which behavior is undertaken for reasons that come from within versus outside a person
-made up of 5 sub-theories: we will focus on two

29

organismic integration theory

-deals with different types of motivation: views motivation as occurring on a continuum from external to internal (self-determined) sources
-types of motivation

30

three types of intrinsic motivation

1. motivation to learn a new skill
2. motivation to accomplish
3. motivation due to sensory pleasure