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-behavioral processes through which one person influences another person, or a group of others, towards attaining a specific set of objectives or goals
-things that people do to influence of a group to obtain certain goals or objectives


approaches to understanding leadership

-situation and contingencies


approaches to understanding leadership: personality

-At times, leadership has been considered a personality trait.
Personality-centered view of leadership was popular in the 1960’s and 1970’s but then it dwindled likely due to the inconsistent nature of the research findings – yet there has been a bit of a resurgence since the advent of the 5-factor model of personality where this model was applied to the understanding of personality in sport and physical activity settings.


personality: 5 factor model

-meta-analysis of the 5 personality factors and leadership emergence and effectiveness work place and sport settings
-the emergence and effectiveness of leaders was associated with:
-higher extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience
Studies were done in workplace and sport:
- Negative association between neuroticism and leadership
* only 4 studies*


What about Personality Match between leaders and followers?

Jackson et al., (2011) found that when athletes and coaches had similar personalities:
-extraversion, openness to experiences:
there was greater mutual commitment


transactional and transformational leadership

-full range model of leadership
-outlines a spectrum of leadership behaviors ranging from ineffective-highly effective


non leadership

-ineffective type of leader
-not making decisions


transactional leadership

-Use rewards and recognition and compliance-maximizing behaviors to get others to do what they want
Key behaviors:
-Waiting for mistakes to arise; responding with corrective direction and punishment
-Active monitoring and providing corrective direction
-Providing rewards and recognition that is contingent on successful task execution or role responsibilities


transformational leadership

-Going beyond one’s self-interests to empower, inspire and give those being led confidence to achieve higher level functioning
Key behaviors:
-Intellectually stimulation: foster independent thinking (e.g, questioning assumptions; seeing things a different way; think for themselves)
-Individualized consideration: acting with care, compassion and empathy to support psychological and physical needs of others
-Inspirational motivation: use of optimism and encouragement and holding high expectations of others
-Idealized influence: act as role models through living their values and ideals (walking the walk)
-strongly correlated


transformational leadership model

-intrinsic motivation
-better performance
-higher coach ratings
-less aggression


how do leadership behaviors develop?

Nature: Genetics has been found to relate to leadership behaviors (twin-studies)
Nurture: Parenting affects transformational leadership behaviors of children in sport
Professional development training


transformational leadership in physical education

-transformational leadership behaviors can be used by PE teachers to shape the learning environment
-the use of transformational leadership behaviors by teachers has been associated with:
-improved beliefs and attitudes towards PE
-greater motivation towards PE and PA generally
-greater enjoyment of PE
-greater satisfaction with teacher
-improved behavioral engagement and involvement in leisure time PA
-satisfaction of student pyschological needs
-self-efficacy beliefs


athlete leaders in sport

-athlete leader: team member who acts (formally or informally) to guide and influence other team members towards a common objective
-size of team affects formal designation of leaders


athlete leaders serve 3 functions

-help members accomplish task objectives
ex) mentoring new members
-help members meet social needs
ex) organize team activities outside the sport context
-help represent team through external needs
ex) representing the team with in the community



-important to also consider who is being led
-narcissism: a trait where people exaggerate their talents and accomplishments and have an inflated sense of their own self-importance
-people high in narcissim did not respond well when leaders emphasize group goals and the importance of team work


leadership in exercise

-exercise leaders can impact participation, satisfaction, enjoyment and engagement
-exercise leaders with enriched versus bland leadership styles lead to the above outcomes
-enriched leaders give frequent individual attention; provide positive, encouraging feedback; recognize participants efforts
-qualities of tranformational leadership also extend to exercise leaders


best practices in effective leadership

1. clearly indicate how the team/group/athlete should operate and seek member input
2. respond to individual differences and needs. provide individualized feedback
3. encourage followers to see challenges as opportunities and to approach challenge from multiple perspective. encourage followers to think for themselves
4. share personal values and beliefs. make it clear what standards you hold for those followers. model those behaviors yourself
5. be enthusiastic and optimistic on what followers can achieve