Flashcards in 13. Fertility, Fercundity, Life Expectancy Deck (19)
The study of human population begins with how many people are born. ____ is the incidence of childbearing in a country's populaton and is calculated by the number of births per woman.
The ____ ____ ____ (CBR) is the number of live births per 1000 mean population at mid-year.
crude birth rate
The CBR is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of ____ ____. It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population.
During a woman's childbearing years, from the onset of menstruation to menopause, a woman is capable of bearing more than twenty chldren. However, ____ or the maximum possible childbearing, is sharply reduced by cultural norms, finances and personal choice.
A steady population rate relies on the rates for births, deaths and migration. For a population to stay the same size, the _____ ____ is calculated - a replacement rate 2.1 births per woman.
Fertility is associated with the _____ of families. The nature of family formation impacts on demographic processes and is a product of them.
Everything from reproductive technologies and behaviours, through to the increasing diversity of ____ ____ (children living with both biological parents is often a minority form of family in many developed societies), or the degree to which public policies are family friendly impact on birth and fertility rates.
The other central personal experience that demography is concerned with is ____. The crude death rate is calculated by taking the number of deaths in a particular year and dividing it by the total mid-year population. The important trend here is that people are living longer. Life expectancy is growing.
____ ____ is the number of years that a person can expect to live on average.
Compared wth just over 100 years ago, people can look forward to __-__ more years of life than could their forebears.
The lack major wars, the increasing effectiveness of modern medical practices and an awareness of what constitutes a ____ ____ all have contributed to a longer average life.
Another important demographic statistic the ____ ____ ____ (IMR), which is the number of deaths among infants under one year of age for each 1000 live births in a given year.
infant mortality rate
Increasing life expectancy combined with lower fertility has meant that the average age of populations has been moving ____ (ie. people are getting older). There are more people over the age of 60 than there are under the age of 16.
What is also interesting is that the elderly group itself is ____. Numbers of elderly over 85 are increasing.
The ageing of the New Zealand population has a number of implications. The ____ ____ (those in paid employment compared with those who are reliant on some form of state benefit) has changed dramatically.
In the mid-twentieth century there were five people in paid employment for every one person over the age of 65. Currently the ratio is ____ workers to one over the age of 65 and by the middle this century the ratio might of well be 1:1.
The cost of supporting those of retiring age is a major ____ and ____ issue that is of concern to many governments as current tax revenue is less and less able to provide sufficient income to support these older citizens.
financial and political
More older people means more demands on health and elder care. In fact, ____ ____ is one of the most rapidly growing parts of the economy.