Flashcards in 11. Contemp. Persp. Of Family Deck (41)
What these approaches share is the assumption that the family is an ____. In this sense, institution refers to the family as a thing, a key element in the social structure.
Stevie Jackson entitles a section of her article 'Whatever Happened to the Sociology of the Family?' As you read through it you will notice that Jackson is responding to the ____ of functionalst and Marxist approaches within the sociology of the family until the early 1970s.
By the end of the 1970s, theorising the family as a ____ was starting to be challenged by newer sociological approaches.
Some sociologists influenced by social movements that had begun in the 1960s especially ____ and the ____ movement critiqued the core intellectual traditions that had formed the basis of the 'old fashioned' approaches to socology of the family. Ths critique drew upon an avalanche of empirical research into family life.
feminism and the anti-racism
So far reaching was the critique that Canadian sociologist David Cheal has described it as 'The ___ ____' that nearly killed off but ultimately reinvigorated the 'sociology of the family'.
After the Big Bang, sociologists came to recognise that ideas about family life were intimately connected with other areas of social life, like ____ and _____.
gender and sexuality
Perhaps most importanty, ____ sociologists successfully showed how the idea that the family as 'a thing' disguised gendered inequalities within and across family groups. Rather than the family being 'a unit', feminists showed that people within families had very different experiences of family life.
Similarly, feminists argued that the old fashioned sociological approaches to the family ignored the experiences of ____ within families, and served to reinforce powerful cultural ideas about the heterosexual nuclear family being a natural rather than social phenomenon.
Perhaps the biggest impact of the Big Bang on the sociology of the family is the effect it has had on the way that sociologists ____ the family.
Since the 1980s, many sociologists have suggested that the 'the family' is a term which represents an ____ idea, an ideological construct, rather than the way people actually live.
Some wish to retain the concept of the family, but even those who still define the family as an institution nonetheless ____ it very differently from earlier generations of sociologists.
Three main ____ to the family' have been raised:
the term is essentialist, as it presupposes an essential basic unit discernible in all cultures at all times
it treats as a unity something which is in fact internally differentiated, thus concealing inequalities within it
it masks the diversity of family forms existing in society today.
Ess. If used incautiously, especially in cross-cultural and historical analysis, the term 'the family' can imply a ____ phenomenon.
Ess. Even if it varies in form there is still some essential entity identifiable as the ____ which exists across time and in all societies.
Ess. The commonly used terms 'nuclear and extended' family also suggest a basic nucleus which is, under some circumstances, ____ to a wider orbit of kin.
Ess. This ____ view has often entailed treating the family as a clearly bounded unit set apart from wider society, something which is affected by differing or changing social structures but which has no effects beyond its own boundaries.
Ess. This is why sociologists in the past talked of the effects of industrialisation on the family without considering that family relations might ____ wider social relations.
Ess. As we have seen, the term 'family' has not had the same meaning throughout ____; household and family relations have not always intersected in the ways they do today.
Ess. Cross-culturally, there is even greater variability. Anthropological evidence suggests that here is no simple, single entity that can be defined as the 'family' and compared across ____.
Ess. What we are dealing with is not a fixed structure but a complex set of ____ and ____ - who counts as kin, who lives with whom, who can or should marry whom, who should perform which activities inside the domestic unit - all of which vary cross-culturally.
relationships and practices
Ess. This suggests that the concept of 'the family' as we understand it is historically and culturally specific and should be used, if at all, only in the context of ____ society.
Dif. If families are constituted through a complex of relationships and practices, it follows that individuals are differently located within families and not all members of the same family ____ it in the same way.
Dif. In particular, families are differentiated by ____ and ____.
gender and generation
Dif. The term the family can often mask these differences. We should not, for example, speak of the effects of poverty on the family, without considering that these eftects might not be felt equally by all family members. Nor should we assume that 'the family' or even 'a family' acts ____.
Dif. Even when family members do something ____, they may not be engaged in exactly the same activities in precisely the same ways.
Dif. Work and leisure are ____ distributed within families and families are also sites of power relations.
Dif. Differences within families, however, do not provide grounds for denying is an ____. After all, most social institutions are internally differentiated.
Dif. Family relationships appear to be structured, institutionalised relationships despite the ____ of domestic arrangements existing in society today.
Div. It is certainly the case that the ____ idea of "the family" does not correspond with the lived reality of family life.