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176.101 Intro To Sociology > Glossary > Flashcards

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____ refers to the potential for individuals to independently exercise choice and influence over their social world and in their daily lives.

Agency

1

____ ____ is the set of commonly shared ideas that are drawn on in everyday life to explain events in the world. It tends to rely on forms of explanation that are individualising and naturalising

Common sense

2

____ are abstract ideas that refer to the general properties of chosen aspects of social life.

Concepts

3

____ refers to the beliefs values and customs that are shared by a particular group of people within society.

Culture

4

____ refers to the increasing interdependence between societies on a worldwide basis.

Globalisation

5

____ are propositions put forward for empirical testing.

Hypotheses

6

____ refers to the distinctive characteristics of persons or groups.

Identity

7

____ refers to the patterned differences in power over resources and decision-making that exist in all societies These differences may include economic resources such as land or money, access to weapons or organisational power, or cultural resources like knowledge.

Inequality

8

____ ____ refers to a form of structural power relations organised through the economic system and state.

Political economy

9

_____ is the process by which all aspects of human action become subject to calculation measurement and control

Rationalisation

10

____ is a process whereby individuals internalise messages about how the body should be regulated and managed.

Self-rationalisation

11

____ ____ are the expectations and attributes associated with social positions.

Social roles

12

____ ____ refers to the relative position of a person on a publicly recognised scale of social worth.

Social status

13

_____ ____ refers to enduring, orderly and patterned relationships that organise social life.

Social structure

14

The ____ ____ was a concept first coined by C. Wright Mills in 1959. More recently Evan Willis (1999) has elaborated on the concept arguing that understanding any social phenomenon involves considering four key dimensions: the historical, the cultural, the structural and the critical.

sociological imagination

15

_____ is the systematic critical study of the structure of social relations.

Sociology

16

_____ are bodies of ideas that attempt to explain in a general way why things happen as they do.

Theories

17

____ ____ is a position which assumes that biological features of the body determine the way that gender and sexuality is experienced and expressed.

Biological determinism

18

____ ____ is a form of essentialism which focuses on the biology as the central truth about gender or sexuality.

Biological essentialism

19

____ arguments do not take account of human agency in the shaping of gender or sexuality.

Determinist

20

____ arguments attempt to explain the properties of complex features of social life by reference to a supposed inner truth or essence.

Essentialist

21

____ refers to the social categories of men and women.

Gender

22

_____ ____ is the process by which new born infants are assigned a gender (boy or girl) on the basis of (usually) visible biological characteristics. This of assignment undertaken where the primary sexual process is even characteristics are mixed.

Gender assignment

23

____ ____ is the womplishment by indviduals of a particular gender that they have been assigned or in the case of transsexuals have taken up

Gender accomplishment

24

____ ____ is the assumption that all women or all men will share the same experiences or characteristics with all other women or men.

Gender essentialism

25

_____ ____ refers to the masculine or feminine sense of self that individuals develop in line with their gender assignment.

Gender identity

26

____ ____ refers to the specific behaviours and activities that are associated With each gender.

Gender role

27

____ ____ is the process through which individuals learn to take up the role and identity deemed appropriate for their gender.

Gender socialisation

28

____ refers to the assumption that heterosexuality is the most normal form of sexual expression. Some theorists argue that it is a fundamental structuring feature of society.

Heteronormativity

29

____ beliefs reinforce the notion that heterosexuality is the most normal form of sexuality. They also involve particular ideas about how men and women should behave in sexual relationships with each other.

Heterosexist