Flashcards in 12. Demographic Transition Deck (34)
Thomas ____ (1766-1834) Essay on Population, first published in 1798.
Malthus and other classical economic thinkers wrote at the start of the nineteenth century, when accelerating ____ and ____ growth were raising demands for food faster than English agriculture could respond.
population and industrial
Their argument was that limited productive land as well as limits of the supply of capital and labor would determine how many ____ could be supported by a nation.
Malthus turned these arguments upside down. He argued that since "sexual passion was a constant" human population would increase ____ (in his words. "geometrically"), while the supply of land, food, and material resources would increase arithmetically.
Thus, instead of limited natural resources (land) and labor causing limits to population growth, Malthus believed that population growth caused resources to be overused and the market value of labor to decline. ____ ____ rather than lack of resources and labor produced poverty and human misery.
Malthus argued that this cycle was a "____ ___" of population: Each increase in the food supply only meant that eventually more people could live in poverty.
Malthus was aware that starvation rarely operates directly to kill people, and he thought that war, disease, and poverty were ____ ____ on population growth.
Although he held out the possibility of deliberate population controls (____ checks) on population growth, he was not very optimistic about their effectiveness.
Malthus argued that poverty is an eventual ____ of population growth. Such poverty, he argued, is a stimulus that could lift people out of misery if they tried to do something about it.
So, he argued, if people remain poor, it is their own ____. He opposed the English Poor Laws (that provided benefits to the poor) because he felt t would actually serve to perpetuate misery by enabling poor people to be supported by others.
One of the most universally observed but still not clearly explained patterns of population growth is termed the ____ ____.
This model of population change has three stages: (1) ____ social organization where mortality and fertility are relatively high; (2) ____ social organization, where mortal ity declines, fertility remains high, and population shows a high rate of natural increase and (3) ____ social organization, where mortality and fertility stabilize at relatively low levels, and near stationary population is possible.
primitive, transitional, modern
_____ transition refers to changes in birth or death rates and the impact on the size and nature of a population. It has four phases.
In phase 1. ____ cultures have both high birth and high death rates. During this phase, the population size does not increase very fast at all.
Phase 2 is called the '____ ____'. Death rates drop due to the improved health of the population, including that of infants. The end of phase 2 and the beginning of phase 3 have the highest net growth rates (that is, birth-death rates).
Phase 3 is also called either the industrial stage or the _____ ____. This phase sees the decrease in births that is correlated to a variety of factors.
Phase 4 represents the _____ stage. Populations in this phase have low net growth rates, leading to net zero population growth, and in some cases, a negative net growth rate.
First, ____ upgraded both manufacturing and agricultural productivity so that the economic base could support much larger populations
Second, ____ ____ in the control of epidemic disease and improvements in public services like urban sewerage, water systems, and garbage disposal contributed to improved health and reduced mortality rates.
Third, as populations became increasingly urbanized, ____ changes occurred. The children of rural peasants are generally an economic asset: They eat little an and from an early age contribute substantially to the family farm and household. But urban children become more of an economic burden than an asset.
Industrialization was also coupled with opportunities for women to work outside the family and eventually improved the ____ of women.
Industrial modernisation had, in other words, a variety of incentives that promoted ____ ____.
the demographic transition process has meant that beginning with social and economic modernisation, ____ rates declined, followed after a time interval by declining ____ rates.
But between these events was a period of ____ ____ when birth rates remained high but death rates rapidly declined. That transitional growth period is what the population explosion since the beginning of the industrial era is all about.
When applied at a global level, the demographic transition model provides reasons for expecting world population growth to eventually ____.
There are at least two other limitations of the demographic transition model. It is ____ in assuming that historic processes of demographic change in MDG are being repeated in the LDCs, when in fact the historical, political, and economic circumstances in which they entered the modern world differ importantly.
Related to this criticism is another - that the model has not been capable of precisely ____ levels of mortality, or fertility, or the timing of fertility declines at national, much less at global, levels.
Today most MDCs are far along the path toward population ____, well into stage 3 of the demographic transition. They exhibit declining birth rates and low rates of growth. Many are coming to the equilbrium or replacement rate of fertility, which would result in population growth.
In LDCs, the story is very different. Their rapid transitional growth came later in the twentieth century without the benefit of _____ ____ -that is, without the relatively unpopulated land or colonies to absorb the pressure of population growth.