Karl Marx was born in Trier in the German Rhineland in ____.
To acquire an understanding of Marx's theoretical approach to the study of the workings of society, it is first of all necessary to grasp the basic tenets of his ____ ____ of ____.
materialist conception of history
The fundamental assumption underpinning the materialist conception of history is that it is ____ ____ ____ rather than ideas which plays the crucial role in historical development.
practical human activity
The production of the means of ____ (food, shelter, clothing) and the conditions under which they are produced, are of primary importance.
The capacity of human beings to ____ on and transform nature to meet their needs is at the very core of human life. Work/labour is what makes us human.
Marx was in particular reacting against the thought of the German philosopher, ____ (1770-1831).
Hegel had argued that ____ were the principal dynamic force in historical development. Ideas determine material life.
Marx's counterargument against this idealism was that ideas originated in the fundamental problems of material life. Marx's ____ is the reverse of Hegel's idealism.
Bearing in mind the key point that the economic organisation of society is the point of departure for the study of society, Marx goes on to make a crucial distinction between the economic base or ____ of socety and the ____.
The ____ includes the political legal and cultural institutions and the corresponding forms of social consciousness (ideas).
The economic infrastructure of a society is the foundation stone which upon particular political, legal and cultural (eg. the media, churches) ____ are built.
The superstructure is usually described as a reflection of the economic infrastructure in the ____, legal and cultural institutions.
The infrastructure/base/foundation of any society can also be called the ____ of ____.
mode of production
Any mode of production is made up of ____ of production and ____ of production
A mode of production is ____ both by the level of development reached by its productive forces and by the nature of the relations of production.
The ____ of ____ include the whole range of means available to human beings for controlling nature and producing material goods to satisfy their needs.
forces of production
The ____ of production: natural resources (eg, oil, wood, minerals, water) tools, machinery, technology.
The ____ ____ of human beings (their capacity to work) - without which natural resources could not be extracted from the earth, nor machines transform these same resources into objects for human use.
The ____ of production, according to Marx, have to do with the ways in which the production process is organised.
____ occurs, according to Marx when the objects created by human beings confront them as external, alien, hostile and oppressive things. Alienation means that human beings are estranged from ther own creative activity and from other people.
Alienation is the process through which workers lose control over their ____ and the products of that ____.
Marx identifies three principal forms of alienation in modern, capitalist society the human being is alienated from ____, from ____ and from their ______ (their species being).
nature, themselves, fellow human beings
In the human being's alienation from ____, Marx sees, in particular, the worker's alienation from their capacity to shape their world
In respect of the human being's alienation from ____, Marx argues that capitalism alienates the worker from their own activity and from the product of their activity (ie, 'alienation of things').
Regarding alienation from ________, Marx stipulates that competition between workers for scarce jobs, between capitalists to maximise profits, and class conflict between capitalists and workers have all rendered most forms of co-operation impossible.
fellow human beings
All in all, then, human beings in modern, capitalist society have, in Marx's view, lost their ____. They have been reduced to an animal existence.
The fact that the worker, in particular, is separated from nature, themself, their activity, the product of their activity and others, all confirm the total ____ conditions of modern capitalism.
Workers are mainly measured in terms of their ____ ____, that is, how much profit can be made out of them in the shortest period of time.
Alienation is ____ ____. It is the outcome of a particular set of historical circumstances namely, the capitalist mode of production. Because alienation is not intrinsic to the human condition it can be overcome.
Marx analyses alienation in modern capitalism the against backdrop of a state of ____, a future communist society.