Max Weber was born in the town of Erfurt in Thuringia on April 21, ____.
The foundation stone of Weber's sociology is the concept of ____ ____.
____ ____, according to Weber, exists insofar as the acting individual confers a subjective meaning on their behaviour.
The key feature of human action is that it is ____, intentional and subjectively meaningful conduct. It involves understanding the meanings which the individual's actions have for them.
____ ____ is a special case of human action. Social action like all specifically meaningful human action involves the acting individual attaching subjective meaning to their behaviour.
What renders human action social is the '____ to ____', for Weber human action can only be deemed 'social' when it takes others into account.
orientation to others
Of particular importance also is Weber's argument that action in the sense of subjectively understandable behaviour exists only as the behaviour of one or more individual human beings. Weber is of the view that the primary agent of action is always the ____.
Social action always takes place against the backdrop of already well-established social arrangements that we may refer to as ____ or ____.
organisations or structures
For Weber, sociology is an ____ science of social action.
The concept of ____ or interpretative understanding is at the core of Weber's sociology of action. For Weber, sociology is a science concentrating on the interpretative understanding of social action.
Sociology is concerned with gaining access to the ____ of actions for individuals.
Social action is unintelligible unless we can apprehend its ____ meaning.
The ____ ____ understanding of a given action means that it is immediately understandable.
Placing the immediate understood action into a motivational context provides an ____ for it.
But he is also adamant that the teasing out of subjective meanings must be undertaken in _____ with the analysis of pre-established social relations and historical conditions that provide the context in which these meanings must be realised.
Weber's sociology of action is concerned with apprehending both the subjective creation of meaning on the part of individuals and the all-embracing wider ____ of society.
It is important to bear in mind that ____ is a socio-historical process, whereas we are reflecting in an explicit way on the product of rationalisation when we use terms like rationality and rationalism.
The rationalisation of modern society in the West can, according to Weber, be understood as the triumph of ____ rationality over ____ rationality.
_____ Rationality Matter-of-value, Incalculable, Unpredictable, Personal, Non-systematic, Concrete, Particular.
____ Rationality Matter-of-fact, calculable, Predictable, Impersonal, Systematic, Abstract, General.
Substantive rationality is a matter of ____. It refers principally to the worth of ends or results from some evaluative standpoint, that is, from some belief (eg, a religious belief) or value-commitment. The individual's conduct is guided by principles, beliefs, values, ideals.
Instrumental rationality as a mode of thinking and a principle upon which society is organised, implies the dismissal of everything which is incalculable, unpredictable, arbitrary, personal and so on. It refers primarily to the ____ of means and procedures for the achievement of well-defined goals.
Instrumental rationality is often described as formal, since calculation can be applied to all substantive ends. This form of rationality is matter of ____.
For Weber, the ____ of calculability is the driving force behind the rationalisation of modern, Western society.
Instrumental rationality ____ facilitates the conscious, calculated pursuit of any goal, whatever its significance, worth or value.
It is this ____ built into instrumental rationality that gives modern, Western society its distinctive character Instrumental rationality treats all substantive beliefs and values with olympian indifference.
It is Weber's contention that instrumental rationality permeates all areas of ____ ____ in the modern West.
Modem industrial capitalism, the modern state, modem bureaucracy, modem science and so forth all represent component phenomena in the embracing process of the ____ of the West.
The emergence of modern science, according to Weber, attests to the progressive ____ of life in modern society.
The view of the world as a causal mechanism that can be known by calculation is at the heart of _____ ____.