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176.101 Intro To Sociology > 7. Max Weber > Flashcards

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Max Weber was born in the town of Erfurt in Thuringia on April 21, ____.

1864

1

The foundation stone of Weber's sociology is the concept of ____ ____.

social action

2

____ ____, according to Weber, exists insofar as the acting individual confers a subjective meaning on their behaviour.

Human Action

3

The key feature of human action is that it is ____, intentional and subjectively meaningful conduct. It involves understanding the meanings which the individual's actions have for them.

voluntary

4

____ ____ is a special case of human action. Social action like all specifically meaningful human action involves the acting individual attaching subjective meaning to their behaviour.

Social action

5

What renders human action social is the '____ to ____', for Weber human action can only be deemed 'social' when it takes others into account.

orientation to others

6

Of particular importance also is Weber's argument that action in the sense of subjectively understandable behaviour exists only as the behaviour of one or more individual human beings. Weber is of the view that the primary agent of action is always the ____.

individual

7

Social action always takes place against the backdrop of already well-established social arrangements that we may refer to as ____ or ____.

organisations or structures

8

For Weber, sociology is an ____ science of social action.

empirical

9

The concept of ____ or interpretative understanding is at the core of Weber's sociology of action. For Weber, sociology is a science concentrating on the interpretative understanding of social action.

Verstehen

10

Sociology is concerned with gaining access to the ____ of actions for individuals.

meaning

11

Social action is unintelligible unless we can apprehend its ____ meaning.

subjective

12

The ____ ____ understanding of a given action means that it is immediately understandable.

direct observational

13

Placing the immediate understood action into a motivational context provides an ____ for it.

explanation

14

But he is also adamant that the teasing out of subjective meanings must be undertaken in _____ with the analysis of pre-established social relations and historical conditions that provide the context in which these meanings must be realised.

conjunction

15

Weber's sociology of action is concerned with apprehending both the subjective creation of meaning on the part of individuals and the all-embracing wider ____ of society.

structures

16

It is important to bear in mind that ____ is a socio-historical process, whereas we are reflecting in an explicit way on the product of rationalisation when we use terms like rationality and rationalism.

rationalisation

17

The rationalisation of modern society in the West can, according to Weber, be understood as the triumph of ____ rationality over ____ rationality.

instrumental, substantive

18

_____ Rationality Matter-of-value, Incalculable, Unpredictable, Personal, Non-systematic, Concrete, Particular.

Substantive

19

____ Rationality Matter-of-fact, calculable, Predictable, Impersonal, Systematic, Abstract, General.

Instrumental

20

Substantive rationality is a matter of ____. It refers principally to the worth of ends or results from some evaluative standpoint, that is, from some belief (eg, a religious belief) or value-commitment. The individual's conduct is guided by principles, beliefs, values, ideals.

value

21

Instrumental rationality as a mode of thinking and a principle upon which society is organised, implies the dismissal of everything which is incalculable, unpredictable, arbitrary, personal and so on. It refers primarily to the ____ of means and procedures for the achievement of well-defined goals.

calculability

22

Instrumental rationality is often described as formal, since calculation can be applied to all substantive ends. This form of rationality is matter of ____.

fact

23

For Weber, the ____ of calculability is the driving force behind the rationalisation of modern, Western society.

maximisation

24

Instrumental rationality ____ facilitates the conscious, calculated pursuit of any goal, whatever its significance, worth or value.

indiscriminately

25

It is this ____ built into instrumental rationality that gives modern, Western society its distinctive character Instrumental rationality treats all substantive beliefs and values with olympian indifference.

value-neutrality

26

It is Weber's contention that instrumental rationality permeates all areas of ____ ____ in the modern West.

social life

27

Modem industrial capitalism, the modern state, modem bureaucracy, modem science and so forth all represent component phenomena in the embracing process of the ____ of the West.

rationalisation

28

The emergence of modern science, according to Weber, attests to the progressive ____ of life in modern society.

intellectualisation

29

The view of the world as a causal mechanism that can be known by calculation is at the heart of _____ ____.

modern science