Emile Durkheim was born on the 15th April ____ at Épinal in Alsace-Lorraine.
He spent fifteen years at Bordeaux and wrote some of his most famous books there: The Division of Labour in Society (1893), The Rules of Sociological Method (1895) and Suicide (____).
Durkheim, set out to establish sociology as a strictly scientific, precise, empirical study of 'the ____'.
Durkheim reasons that sociology in order to be deemed '____' must study what he calls 'social facts as things'. The fundamental rules for the study of social facts as things were set down in Durkhem's famous book, The Rules of Sociological Method.
Durkheim is saying that a particular ____ ____ must be taken towards social facts like suicide and religion.
Social facts ought to be ____ in the same rigorous manner as objects and events in nature.
Social facts rendered as things are accessible through sense perception, that is, they can be subject to ____.
Durkheim is saying that we can study a social phenomenon like suicide by analysing ____ ____, as distinct from the reasons and intentions that the individual may have for committing suicide.
The difficulty from Durkheim's standpoint is that ____, ____, ____ and so on are not immediately apparent. They cannot be directly observed.
meanings, reasons, intentions
Durkheim goes on to define ____ ____ more precisely when he refers to the dual character of social facts as both external and constraining.
In respect of the exteriority of social facts, Durkheim contends that the facts observed by the sociologist are ____ to the individual.
Regarding the _____ nature of social facts, Durkheim reasons that these facts are endowed with coercive power in the sense that they can be imposed upon the individual independently of their will.
Individuals generally adhere to social norms because they either consider them ____ or they are habituated to obeying them.
Durkheim differentiates between two types of social facts. ____ ____ are real material entities but they are not of the greatest significance in Durkheim's sociological writings.
Material facts include: ____ (eg. New Zealand society), structural components of society (eg. the state occupational associations) and morphological components of society (e g. the distribution of population).
____ _____ are at the core of Durkheim's sociology.
Non-material facts include: morality, collective conscience, social ____
____ - notions of what is deemed right or wrong in a particular society.
____ ____ - the shared values, beliefs, norms, and sentiments of specific collectivities such as a professional occupational association or a religious institution;
____ ____ - what Durkheim refers to as 'the great movements of enthusiasm, indignation and pity in a crowd'.
Durkheim is an exponent of the Enlightenment thinkers' notion of ____. Experience is considered as the source of all scientific knowledge.
Scientific knowledge is acquired through sense perception. Sociology to be deemed scientific must begin with _____.
Social facts like suicide are treated as ____ (an object) quite separate from the motives and intentions of the individuals being studied and from the sociological observer.
Caution: The sociologist cannot fully understand social life (unlike, for instance, the physicist studying atoms), if he totally ____ the meanings individuals bestow on their conduct or the motives and intentions grounding human action.
It is important to underline the fact that according to Durkheim, anything which is a source of solidarity is ____. Anything which compels the individual to take account of others is ____. The individual is deemed to be a ____ being only because they live in society.
It is Durkheim's contention that traditional pre-modern societies are characterised by ____ ____. The social structure of these societies can be aptly described as made up of small-scale, rural, agricultural units.
It follows that solidarity between individuals is brought about through ____ ____. The fact that the different occupations are so similar, implies that concordance between individuals arises almost automatically; solidarity is mechanical.
For Durkheim, the collective conscience in a society distinguished by mechanical solidarity is noted for its _____. The thoughts of individuals are almost interchangeable since they all share common beliefs, values, norms and sentiments.
In fact, the ____ ____ (what may aptly be called the group mind) is so pervasive that there is little room for individuality.
What Durkheim calls ____ ____ attests to the all-pervasive power of the collective conscience. Altruistic suicide is the normal type of suicide in simple, traditional, pre-modern societies.