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176.101 Intro To Sociology > 14. Hunger > Flashcards

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On the middle level are about 4 billion ____ ____, who get enough calories and plenty of plant-based protein, giving them the healthiest basic diet among the world's people. They typically receive less than 20% of their calories from fat, a level low enough to protect them from the consequences of excessive dietary fat.

grain eaters


You can think of global food consumers as being on three levels or tiers. At the bottom are about 1.1 billion people (about 20% of the world's people) who are unable to provide themselves with a healthy diet. These people are classified as ____ ____, and at least 60% of them are children.

food-energy deficient


At the top are the world's billion ____ ____, mainly in Europe and North America who obtain close to 40% of their calories from fat (three times that of the rest of the world's people).

meat eaters


As people in the middle level (in China. for instance) become more ____, they tend to "move up the food chain" to emulate people at the top.



The high meat diet of those at the top is not only unhealthy, but creates a demand for meat production that causes a substantial share of the global inequity of food resources and ____ abuse.



While declining hunger rates may be cause for optimism, it is also true that in terms of absolute numbers there are more hungry people in the world and in America than ever before. because of the continued momentum of ____ ____.

population growth


First, for the present at least. chronic hunger is not caused by too many people or too little food. The world's farmers produce enough cereals, meat, and other food products to ____ feed the world's population.



Second, problems of hunger are caused by the way food is ____ - put another way, because people lack access to the food that exists.



Explanations of ____ allude to things like inequality and income distribution, population density and growth, agricultural research agendas, social disruptions like wars, social welfare and insurance policies, and agricultural trade and commodity prices.



Within academic and food policy circles, there are several styles of thinking to ____ why hunger exists, each with different emphases, some supportive evidence, and very different policy implications.



____ ____ argues that the world hunger problem is caused by not enough food and the poor productivity of traditional agriculture, particularly as it is practiced in the LDCs.

Agricultural modernisation


AM. However appealing, it is misleading since everyone admits that the problem is not that there isnt enough food, but how it is ____.



AM. Furthermore, there is reason to think that if such "modernisation" of traditional agriculture were to take place under the aegis of large multinational agribusiness firms, the world would have more total food, but still there would exist the hunger of those who are malnourished because they are ____.



Ecological neo-Mathusianism is the second way of theorising about the causes of hunger. Its logic seems straightforward: The more people there are, or the faster the rate of ____ ____, the less food and other materials will be available to other people.

population growth


EnM. But as all food analysts agree, even as rapidly as population has grown, it has been ____ by total food production increases.



EnM. Population size or growth may not directly cause people to be ____ or die, but it may be a distant and pervasive factor related to more direct causes.



EnM. Ecological neo-Malthusianism sees population growth in conjunction with the progressive degradation of food-producing environmental resource bases like ____ and ____.

soil and water


EnM. In its most sophisticated forms, ecological neo-Malthusianism sees environmental ____ as being more important than population size or growth alone in explaining hunger.



EnM. Ecological neo-Malthusianism is a well-established academic viewpoint that has only modest influence in food and agricultural policy circles. Cross-national research, for instance, finds population size and growth rates to be less strongly related to hunger than other factors, and the significance of population as a driver of hunger is very ____ ____.

regionally specific


EnM. Ecological neo Malthusianism views the limits of the global resource base as ____ ____ and requiring more sustainable forms of agriculture.

constraining consumption


It would require shifts in agricultural technology and practices away from those that have been successful and profitable but ____ damaging.



Ideas about ____ and ____-____ (I & PE) represent a third style of explaining hunger, which particularly illustrates sociological conflict theory.

inequality and political-economy


IPE. It assumes that social ____ and ____ produced in the United States and developing nations - both locally and globally - cause hunger.

inequality and poverty


IPE. In a ____ era, inequality and poverty are perpetuated, and perhaps amplified, by growing world markets for food and other traded goods.



IPE. Such world markets are organized by ____ ____ with the support of government subsidies and international regimes like the world Trade Organization.

large corporations


IPE. World markets concentrate economic assets and increase the total volume of goods to be sold, but displace and disadvantage ____ ____ and workers in many nations.

small producers


Such huge markets work very well for the people with ____, but not well at all for those who have little money, or who are pushed out of jobs or off their land in the process.



IPE. Chronic hunger is more directly related to the distribution of food rather than to the total supply, and hunger is a problem of ____ to food in nations where others eat and are over-nourished.



When self-provisioning peasants and farmers are driven off the land by ____ and ____ of land.

modernisation and consolidation


When modernisation produces more food for markets but not for ____ and poor people.