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Flashcards in Unit 13: Gunpowder Empires Deck (37)
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-"warriors of Islam"
-what many Anatolian Turks saw themselves as
-formed military societies under their emir
-followed a strict Islamic code of conduct
-raided territories of ppl who lived on frontiers of Byzantine Empire



-chief commander



-most successful ghazi
-built a small Muslim state in Anatolia between 1300 and 1326
-his successors expanded it by buying land, forming alliances w/ some emirs, and conquering others



-followers of Osman
-they used alliances, buying land, and war using gunpowder to expand their empire
-military success= largely based on the use of gunpowder
-replaced archers on horseback with musket carrying foot soldiers
-first ppl to use cannons as weapons of attack
-1361 (under Orkhan I)= Ottomans captured Adrianople (second most important city in the Byzantine Empire)
-they ruled through officials and improved the lives of peasants (muslims had to serve in Turkish armies and make contributions to required by their faith; non-muslims didn't have to serve in the army by had to pay for their exemption with small tax
-captured Tripoli on coast of N Africa (conquered more ppls along North African coast)
-the Ottoman Empire continued to influence the world into the early 20th century


Orkhan I

-2nd Ottoman leader
-Osman's son
-declared himself sultan



- "one with power"
1. Mehmed II
2. Selim the Grim
3. Suleyman the Lawgiver


Timur the Lame

-aka Timur-i-Lang, called Tamerlame by Europeans
-injured by an arrow in leg (permanent)
-burned Baghdad (powerful city)
-stopped (for a while) the expansion of the Ottoman Empire
-turned attention to China= war broke out (Mehmed I defeated bros and took the throne
-Murad II (son of Mehmed I) defeated Venetians, invaded Hungary, and overcame an army of Italian crusaders in the Balkans


Mehmed II

-Mehmed the Conquerer
-Murad II's son
- took power at age 21
-"Give me Constantinople!"
-he and his army captured Constantinople (used 26-foot guns that fired 1,200 lb boulders
-he opened Constantinople to new citizens of many religions and backgrounds (jews, Christians, Muslims, Turks, non-Turks)
-they helped rebuild the city
-now called Istanbul


Selim the Grim

-Mehmed II's grandson
-came to power in 1521
-effective sultan, great general
-1514= defeated the Safavids of Persia (Battle of Chaldiran)
-took Mecca, Medina, Cairo (intellectual center of the Muslim world)


Suleyman the Lawgiver

-Selim's son
-known (in the West) as Suleyman the Magnificent
-made many cultural achievements
-great military leader
-studied poetry, history, geography, astronomy, math, and architecture
-art and literature flourished under his rule (similar to the European Renaissance)
-conquered the Belgrade (important European city)
-waged a war with central Europeans, North Africans, and Central Asians (only Charles V, head of the Hapsburg Empire in Europe, came close to rivaling his power
-binded the Ottoman Empire together in a workable structure (his crowning achievement)
-created a low code to handle criminal actions and civil actions
- simplified and limited taxes
-systemized and reduced govnt bureaucracy
-no prison w/o trial
-he was required to follow Islamic law (Muslim)
-religiously tolerant
-he killed his ablest son and sent another into exile
-his third son (unskillful Seilm II) inherited the throne
-HE set the pattern for later sultans to gain and old power (sultan= strangle brothers and imprison them in the harem....cutting them off from education and the world))
-this produced a long line of weak sultans who eventually brought ruin on the empire



-sultan's army drafted boys from the ppls of conquered Christian territories
-the army educated them, converted them to Islam, and trained them as soldiers



-an elite force of 30,000 soldiers
-trained to be loyal to the sultan only
-heart of the Ottoman war machine (superb discipline)



-religious communities (Ottomans granted free worship to other religious communities, particularly Christians and Jews)
-allowed to follow its own religious laws and practices
-the head of the millets reported to the sultan and his staff
-this system kept conflict among the various religions to a minimum



-one of the world's finest architects
-prob from Albania
-hired by Suleyman
-built the Mosque of Suleyman (immense complex topped with domes and half domes)
-it include 4 schools, a library, a bath, and a hospital


The Safavid Empire

-Shi'ite Muslim dynasty
-ruled in Persia between the 16th and 18 centuries
-example of how interaction among ppls can produce a blendin of cultures
-originally were members of a religious brotherhood named after, Safi al-Din (founder)
-15th century= aligned themselves with the Shi'a brach of Islam
-geographically, the Safavid Empire was in bewteen the Ottomans and the Uzbek
-1736= Nadir Shah Asfar conquered land all the way to India and dreated an expanded empire but he was cruel (his own troop assassinated him)
-1747= died, Safavid Empire fell apart


Causes of Cultural Blending

-pursuit of religious freedom or conversion
-the Ottoman Empire was located on a major trading route (contact w/ different cultures)
-Suleyman brought scholars and foreign artist to his court, who brought new ideas about art, literature, and learning to the Ottoman Emprie


Results of Cultural Blending

-may lead to changes in language, religion, styles of govenment, the use of technology, and military tactics
-LANGUAGE= After the Safavid Empire converted to Islam, some Arabic words appeared in the Persian language (persian= spozen language)
-RELIGION & ETHICAL SYSTEMS= some style of Buddhism are different from others (tibetans vs japanese zen buddhism)
-STLYE OF GOVERNMENT= concept of demografic gov spread throughout the globe but it is not practice the same way in all countries, although they have the same basic principles
-RACIAL OR ETHNIC BLENDING= mestizo (ppl of European and Indian ancestry who live in Mexico)
-ARTS & ARCHITECTURE= cultural styles some sometimes incorporated or adapted into arts or architecture (chinese artistic elements are found in Safavid Empire tiles and carpets; and in European paintings



-1499= 12 yrs old; began to seize of what is now Iran
-1501= completed the task
-took the ancient persian title of shah
-became a religious tyrant (anyone who didn't convert to Shi'ism was put to death)
-he destroyed the Sunni population of Baghdad in his battle w/ the Ottomans (Selim, leader of Ottomans, ordered an execution of all Shi'a in the Ottoman Empire----->40,000 ppl died)
-1514= Battle of Chaldiran--> Ottomans vs Safavid; Ottomans defeated Safavids; border was made between the 2 empires (border between Iran and Iraq)



-ancient persian title



-Isma'il's son
-adopted the use of artillery in his military forces
-expanded the Safavid Empire up to the Caucasus Mts, northeast of Turkey
-and brought Christians under Safavid rule
-laid the groundwork for the golden age of the Safavids
-he made the Safavid Empire a gunpowder empire


Shah Abbas

-aka Abbas the Great
-grandson of Isma'il
-took throne in 1587
-inspired by Suleyman
-helped create a Safavid golden age
-limilted the power of the military and create 2 new armies that would be loyal to hima alone (one was Persians, the other was made of the ppl Abbas recruited from the Christian north and modeld after the Ottoman jannissaries)
-reformed govnt (punished corruption, promoted only officials who proved their ablities and loyalty; hired foreigners from neighboring countries to fill positions in the government)
-brought member of Christian religious orders into his empire (convince Europeans he is religiously tolerant; industry, trade, and art exchange grew between the empire and European nations)
-built new capital ar Esfahan
-brought hundreds of Chinese artisans here, who produced metalwork, miniature paintings, calligraphy, glasswork, tile work and pottery (blended Persian and Chinese ideas)---> arts workds filled mosques, palaces, and marketplaces
-sent artists to Italy to study under Raphael (Renaissance artist)----> rugs reflected European designs and traditional Persian themes
-he killed/blinded his ablest sons
-grandson succeeded him



-new capital of Safavid Empire
-built by Shah Abbas
-covered 4.5 miles
-consiered the most beautiful city in the world
-showplace for artisans (foreign and Safavid), who worled in the builindings and the odjects in them
-ex: 300 chinese potters produced glazed building tiles for the builings on the city and Armenians wove carpets



-people who invaded India
-conquerers from the northwest
-descended from Muslim Turks and Afghans and Mongols
-leader= descendant of Timur the Lame and Genghis Khan



-1494= 11 yrs old, inherited a kingdom in what is now Uzbekistan and Tajikistan
-elders took it aways from him
-he built an army--> swept India and laid the foundation for the Mughal Empire
-brilliant general (ex: led 12,000 troops to victory against an army of 100,000 commanded by a sultan of Delhi)



-son of Babur
-lost most of territory Babur gained
-brought 2 masters of miniature art (Safavid artists) to his court to teach the Mughals



-Babur's grandson
-took throne
-means "Great"
-ruled India from 1556-1605
-military conqueror
-doubled Babur's conquests because Humayun lost all of Babur's land
-equipped army with heavy artillery (cannons,...)
-appointed rajputs as officers (turned potential enemies into allies)
-allowed ppl to practice their own faiths (allowed hindu wives to practive hinduism in the palace)
-abolished the tax on Hindu pilgrims and non-Muslims
-appointed a Spanish Jesuit as a tutor for his second son
-allowed natives and foreigners, hindus ans Muslims, could all rise to high office
-Akbar’s chief finance minister, Todar Mal (Hindu), created a taxation policy, which was calculated as a percentage of the value of the peasants’ crops (it was levied similar to the present-day U S.graduated income tax. Because this tax was fair and affordable, the number of peasants who paid it increased. This brought in much needed money for the empire)
-he gave generous land grants to bureaucrats---> prevented growth in feudal aristocracies, didn't encourage dedication; children wouldn't inherit land
-genius at culture blending
-devoted to architecture (Akbar period architecture= portrays Hindu themes---> Fatehpur Sikri)
-died 1605


Blended Cultures

-common people spoke Hindu (language derived from Sanskrit
-Urdu= "from the soldier's camp"; soldiers of different cultuers were in the Mughal army; a blend of Arabic, Persian, and Hindu; is the official language of Pakistan today



-small, highly detailed, and colorful paintings
-brought to the peak of perfection in the Safavid Empire
-Akbarnamah ("Book of Akbar")= story of the great emperor's campaigns and deeds


Tulsi Das

-contemporary of Akbar
-retold the epic love story of Rama and Sita from 300 BC



-Akbar's son
-"Grasper of the world"
-left affairs of state to his wife
-tolerant of other religions