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Flashcards in Unit 12: Renaissance and Reformation Deck (65)
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1

Renaissance

-started in Northern Italy (1300-1600)
-"rebirth"
-revival of art and learning
-rebirth of classical culture (ancient greek/roman)
-innovative styles of art and literature
-new values (importance of the individual)

2

secular

-worldly (be a good person to get into heaven)
-not spiritual
-wealthy= enjoyed material luxuries, good music, and fine foods
-spent money on art, education/literature (books and libraries), fashion, architecture (mansions and churches) and fancy banquets
-Middle Ages= demonstrated piety by wearing rough clothes and eating plain foods

3

Humanism

-an intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements
-philosophy of life
-humans can be excellent
- humans have potential for great achievements
-model= ancient Greeks and Roman (nudity/ no shame, freestanding); understand Greek values not to make classical texts agree with Christian teachings
-influenced architects and artists to carry on classical traditions
-humanists popularized the study of subjects common to classical education-history, literature, philosophy (humanities)
-Middle Ages= everyone is a sinner, PRAY

4

patron

-wealthy people/Church leaders who financially supported the arts

5

Renaissance men

-good at everything
-"universal man"
-know classics
-be charming
-dance, sing, play music, write poetry, skilled rider, wrestler, and swordsman

6

Renaissance women

-know classics
-be charming
-do not seek fame
-inspire art, not create it
-better educated than medieval women
-little influence in politics

7

perspective

-shows 3 dimensions on a flat surface

8

vernacular

-native language
-not Latin

9

Italy's City-States

-lots of trade= new ideas, intellectual revolution, growth of cities; traded with Byzantines (Constantinople), and Muslims (preserved Greek and Roman literature)
-wealthy merhants= motivation to prove excellence (started out poor); became partons (support the arts, writers, and architects)
-they had thier and others portraits painted, which were shown in public to show excellence; some were given to the pope (School of Athens)
-had access to Greek and Roman sources/ideas

10

merchants

-dominated politics
-had to prove (started out poor, then became wealthy)
-

11

the Medici

-powerful banking family
-Cosimo de Medici= wealthiest European of his time; 1434: won control of Florence's gov ; 30 yrs dictator of Florence; died in 1464
-Lorenzo de Medici (Lorenzo the Magnificent)= Cosimo's grandson; Lorenzo the magnificent; ruled as dictator

12

Greek and Roman inpiration

-Renaissance scholars looked down on art and literature of the Middle Ages and wanted to return to the learning of the Greeks and Romans
-ruins of Rome inspired scholars of Italy
-Western scholars studied ancient Latin manuscripts that were preserved in monasteries
-Christian scholars in Constantinople fled to Rome with Greek manuscripts when the Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453

13

Michelangelo Buonarroti

-sculptor, painter, poet, architect
-used a realistic style when depicting the human body (what he was famous for)
-Sistine Chapel
-dome of St. Peter's
-starue of David

14

Donatello

-made sculpture more realistic by carving natural postures and expressions that reveal personality
-statue= David---> first European sculpture of a free-standing nude sconce ancient times

15

Leonardo da Vinci

-Renaissance man
-painter, sculptor, inventor, scientist
-Mona Lisa, The Last Supper (shows personality of Jesus's disciples through facial expressions)

16

Raphael Sanzio

-learned from studying da Vinci's and Michelangelo's work
-famous for use of perspective
-Madonna and child
-School of Athens
-painted famous Renaissance figures (Leonardo, Michelangelo, himself) as classical philosophers and their students

17

Sofonisba Anguissola

-first woman artist to gain an international reputation
-known for her portraits of her sisters and of prominent ppl (King Phillip II of Spain)

18

Artemisia Gentileschi

-accomplished artist
-trained with her painter father and helped with his work
-painted pictures of strong heroic women

19

Francesco Petrarch

-one of the earliest, most influential humanists
-poet (sonnets- 14 line poems), wrote about a mysterious women named Laura, who was his ideal, and about important friends
-love poems
- some call him the father of Renaissance humanism
-wrote in Italian and Latin

20

Giovanni Boccaccio

-wrote the Decameron (series of realistic, sometimes off-color stories) pg 476
-it presents both tragic and comic views of life
-wrote the history of the plague
-said that no one knew what caused it (Middle Ages= blamed Jews, God, themselves....etc)

21

Niccolo Machiavelli

-philosophy
-wrote the Prince
-examined the imperfect conduct of human beings
-said if you were a prince and had to chose to he feared or loved, choose to be feared---> Unchristian
-like Caligula= "oderint dum metuant" (let them hate, so lang as they fear
-trick enemies and ppl
-"people are selfish, fickle, and corrupt" (ppl are slime)
-do what was politicaly effective, not what was morally right

22

Vittoria Colonna

-1492-1547
-married Marquis of Pescara
-writer, poet
-exchanged sonnets with Michelangelo
-helped Castiglione publish The Courtier

23

utopia

-means "no place" in Greek
-the perfect place (no use for money, no war....)

24

William Shakespeare

-playwright
-born 1592, in Stratford-upon-Avon
-wrote Romeo & Juliet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, Hamlet, A Midsummer's Night Dream, The Taming of the Shrew, and many more
-wrote tragedies and comedies
-performed at the Golbe Theater
-drew inspiration from classics

25

Johann Guternberg

-craftsman from Mainz, Germany
-developed printing press

26

printing press

-with moveable type
-made it possible for books to be produced quickly and cheaply
-books were more available
-when it previously took 5 months to write 1 book by hand, 500 books could be made in the same amout of time and would be cost less
-more ppl could have books, be able to read (common ppl
-Gutenberg Bible
-medical, law, and travel books
-maps
-common literature (plays.....)

27

Dante

-wrote the Divine Comedy
-Virgil= guide (in the story)

28

Northern Renaissance

-Netherlands (Belgium/Holland)= beolw sea level; high population; lots of cities; merchants; trade led to new ideas
-a lot like N. Italy
-next stop for Renaissance (1400s)
-Germany= trade; cities; imdependent princes
-England= trade; cities; kings

29

Albrecht Durer

-German painter
-self portrait= renaissance ideas; CELEBRATE YOU! (individual excellence)----> Greek and Romans
-bunny painting= realistic
-3 wise men pic= perspective; realistic; ruins represent ancient Rome (classical)

30

German Painters vs Flemish Painters

-Flemish painters= less realistic that german
-Jan van Eyck: Adam & Eve; Arnolffini Wedding\
-Pieter Bruegel: not very realistic (sort of cartoonish), ver detailed---> Landscape with the fall of Icarus
-German painters= very realistic\
-Albrecht Durer
-Hans Holbein: painted portrait of Henry VIII; realistic; photographic level of detail
-both= lots of detail, classical myth in in the background (not that noticeable, some sort of classical element)