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Flashcards in Unit 10: China Deck (31)
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Tang Taizong

-emperor of the Tang Dynasty from 626-649
-his army reconquered the northern and western lands in China



-emperor (after Han Dynasty collapsed)
-589 = united northern and southern China
-restored a strong central government
-first emperor of the Sui Dynasty


Sui Dynasty

-2 emperors = completed the Grand Canal (waterway that connected the Huang He and the Chang Jiang)
-it provided a vital route for trade between the northern cities and the southern rice-producing region of the Chang Delta
-took 5 yrs to dig (1,000 miles); half of the workers died (peasant men and women)---> more died while building the Great Wall
-ppl revolted because they were overworked and overtaxed
-the Sui Dynasty built a strong foundation for the great achievements for the next dynasty (the Tang Dynasty)


Tang Dynasty

-ruled for 300 yrs (618-907)
-larger than Song
-art = colorful
-inventions = porcelain, mechanical clock, block printing, gunpowder
-668= China extended over Korea
-rulers = strengthened central gov.; expanded the network of road and canals begun by Sui; promoted foreign trade and improvements in agriculture
-they revived and expanded the civil service examination system begun by Han (restore bureaucracy)
-TAXES = brought hardship; failed to cover the costs of military expansion and new building programs
-907 = Chinese rebels sacked and burned Ch'ang-an (Tang capital) and murdered the last Tang emperor, a child


Wu Zhao

-ruler during the campaign in Korea
-only woman to assume the title of empress for herself


civil service examination

-exams were open to men (even commoners) but only wealthy could afford an education
-men w/ political connections could obtain high positions without taking the exams
-the system created an intelligent and capable governing class in China



-reunited China
-proclaimed himself first Song emperor


Song Dynasty

-lasted 300 yrs (960-1276)
-inventions = movable type, paper money, magnetic compass
-more advanced agriculture (rice)
-art = black and white
-it was a small empire but China remained stable, powerful, and prosperous
-did not regain lands
-rulers tried to buy peace w/ northern enemies (paid in silver, sill, tea) but this failed to stop the threat from the north
-1127 = emperors only ruled southern China (Southern Song = 1127-1279); rapid economic growth---> trade
-new capital = Hangzhou (coastal city south of Chang Jiang)


Battle of Talas

-751 = Muslims defeat the Chinese
-example of too much expansion and less governing



-Manchurian ppl
-conquered northern China and established the Jin Empire
-they forced the Song to retreat south across the Huang He


movable type

-blocks of metal or wood, each with a single character, that can be arranged to make up a page for printing



-movable type
-the development of gunpowder led to the creation of explosives (bombs, grenades, small rockets, cannons)
-the mechanical clock
-paper money
-use of the magnetic compass for sailing
-advances in arithmetic and algebra
-LOOK ON PG 328-329



-1000 = China imported anew variety of fast-ripening rice from Vietnam
-this allowed formers or harvest 2 crops of rice a year rather than 1
-more food = fed rapidly expanding population in the cities


Trade and Foreign Contacts

-the Silk Roads
-china eventually lost control over these routes during the long Tang decline
-after this, they relied on ocean trade--->expanded due to the advances in sailing tech (magnetic compass)
-international trade


Li Bo

-wrote about life's pleasure


Tu Fu

-praised orderliness and Confucian virtues
-wrote about war and the hardships of soldiers
-captured by rebels and taken to Ch'ang-an (capital city)
-he sent his family to the village of Fuzhou for safety
-"Moonlight Night" = describes their separation



-powerful, well-to-do people


levels of society in China

1. gentry
2. urban middle class (merchants, shopkeepers, artisans, low ranking officials)
3. laborers, soldiers, and servants
-peasants = lived in countryside; largest class; worked for wealthy landsowner


Status of women in Chinese Society

-lost status
-wealthy/upper class women had their feet bound ("lily or lotus feet")
-peasant women = worked ```in the fields



-vast belt of dry grassland
-little rain
-temp = -57° F (winter) - 96° F (summer)
-original home to Hittites
-eastern steppe (modern day Mongolia) = first home to the Huns, Turks and Mongols



-nomadic ppls
-herded domesticated animals
-had battles with other nomadic groups
-animals = food, clothing and housing
-sometimes traded with settled societies (horses for tea, grain, metal, and cloth)



-portable felt tents



-kinship groups
-the members of each clan claimed to be descended on from a common ancestor
-clans come together when they needed a large force to attack a common enemy or raid their settled neighbors


Genghis Khan

-"universal ruler"
-real name = Temujin
-wanted to unify the Mongols and possibly wanted to seek revenge on the Tartars, who poisoned his father
-goal #1 = conquer China
-destroyed Utrar, Samarkand, and Bukhara (Muslim cites) because Muslim killed Mongol traders and an ambassador
-1225 = Central Asia was under Mongol control
-he was a successful conqueror (brilliant organizer)= army of 10,000 warriors w/ 1,000 man brigades, 100 man companies, and 10 man squads
-gifted strategist = used tricks to confuse his enemy (pg 332)
-used cruelty as a weapon (if a city refused to open it's gates to him, he might kill the entire population when he finally captured the place)
-died in 1227
-successors = continued to expand the empire (50 yrs = Mongols conquered territories from China to Poland



-1260 = mongols divided the empire into 4 regions
-a descendent of Genghis Khan ruled each region
1.The Khanate of the Great Khan (Mongolia and China)
2.The Khanate of Chagtai (Central Asia)
3.The Ilkhanate (Persia)
4.The Khanate of the Golden Horde (Russia)
-the Ilkhanate and the Khanate of the Golden Horde became Muslim


Mongols as rulers

-they destroyed ancient irrigation system (like the Tigris and Euphrates valleys)----> the land couldn't support resettlement
-tolerant to peace
-rarely imposed their beliefs or way of life on those they conquered
-some adopted aspects of culture of the people the ruled


Pax Mongolica

-Mongol Peace
-mid-1200a - mid-1300s
-Mongols imposed stability and law and order across a lot of Eurasia
-they guaranteed safe passage for trade caravans, travelers, and missionaries form one empire to another
-trade was never more active
-ideas/inventions traveled with the trade goods (like gunpowder)
-1300s = bubonic plague (first spread by Mongols)


Kublai Khan

-grandson fo Genghis Khan
-abandoned Mongolian steppes for China
-1260= assumed title of the Great Khan
-1279= attack China--> became China's new emperor
-founded Yuan Dynasty
-he united China for the first time in 300 yrs
-tolerated Chinese culture; made few changes to gov
-his control imposed opened China to greater
contacts and trade
-he and his successors tolerated Chinese culture and made few changes to the system of government
-built new square-walled capital at modern day Beijing
-1274-1281= tried to conquer Japan but failed
-he believed that foreigners were more trustworthy since they had no local loyalties (didn't let Chinese have high gov offices but the kept Chinese as officials to serve at a local level
-he restored the Grand Canal and extended it 135 miles north to Beijing (banks= paved highway than ran 1,100 miles from Hangzhou to Beijing)---> brought grain and other goods from southern heartland
-encouraged trade (invited forwign merchants to china)---> increase trade (Silk Roads)
-kamikaze= "divide wind" that saved Japan (typoon)
-died 1294


Yuan Dynasty

-lasted less than a century until 1368, when it was overthrown
-kublai khan united china for the first time in 300 years


Marco Polo

-Venetian trader
-traveled the Silk Roads with uncle and father (1275= arrived at Geat Khans court)
-served Kublai for 17 yrs
-1292= left China to go back to Venice
-captured and imprisoned during a war between Venice and Genoa
-told stories of his adventures in China while in prison
-thought China was the greatest civilization in the world
-may believed he did not actually go to China (thought his stories were tall tales)