Unit 6: Africa Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 6: Africa Deck (47)
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1

The Efe

-one of the hunting-gathering societies in Africa
-home: Ituri Forest in the Democratic Republic of Congo
-modern day Efe: live in small groups of 10 to 100 ppl who are all related
-women are the gathers (get roots, yams,, mushrooms, and wild seeds from forest)
-men are the hunters (some go solo using poison tipped arrows, others hunt in groups)
-they hunt duikers, mammals (monkeys)
-trade honey, wild game, and other forest products for crops from nearby villages
-daily life is not governed by written laws

2

lineage

-groups of families
-the members of a lineage believe they are from a common ancestor and feel strong loyalties to one another
-it includes past generations (spirits of ancestors) and future generations (children not yet born)

3

stateless societies

-did not have centralized power
-authority was balanced among lineages of equal power so that no one family had too much control

4

The Igbo

-stateless society
-ADD MORE

5

patrilineal

-society that traces their ancestors through their fathers
-inheritance passes from father to son
-when a son marries, he, his wife, and their children remain part of his father's extended family

6

matrilineal

-society where children trace their ancestors through their mothers
-the young men inherit land and wealth from their mother's family

7

duikers

small antelope

8

age-set system

-consists of young ppl within a region who are born during a certain time period
-each age-set passes through clearly identified life stages, such as warrior or elder
-men and women have diferent life stages and each stage has it's own duties and importance
-societies (like Igbo)use the sgae-set system to teach discipline, community service, and leadership skills to their young

9

Maghrib

-part of North Africa that is today the Mediterranean coast of Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco
-northwestern and on the coast of Africa
-had contact with the rest of the world unlike the ppl in sahara and southern Africa

10

Islamic Law

-following the law is a religious obligation
-Muslims do not separate their personal life from theri religious life
-Islamic law regulates almost all of area of human life and helped bring order to Muslim states

11

the Almoravids

-strict religious brotherhood (originally a group of Berbers)
-founded by Abd Allah Ibn Yasin (religious scholar from Morocco)
-members came from a Berber group living in the western Sahara (modern day Mauritania)
-they were they first ppl who built a kingdom that tied together northern and southern parts of Africa
-they spread Islam (very devout Muslims)
-made up of ppl who followed Abd Allah Ibn Yasin's teachings
-he led the Almoravids in an effort to spread Islam through conquest
-they took Morocco and found Marrakech (their capital)
-they overran Ghana (West African empire) in 1076 and captured parts of sourthern Spain, where they were called Moors (conquered southern Spain and conquered Ghana)

12

ribat

fortified ministry

13

the Almohads

-Berber Muslim reformers and very devout Muslims
-capital: Marrakech (ppl speak French and are Muslim)
-seized power from the Almoravids
-began as a religious movement in the Atlas Mts of Morocco
-they followed the teachings of Ibn Tumart, who criticized the later Almoravid rulers for moving away from the traditional practice of Islam
-he urged his followers to strictly obey the teachings of the Que'an and Islamic law
-led by Abd al-Mumin, the Almohads fought to overthrow the Almoravids and remain trure to their view of traditional Islamic beliefs
-1148 = Almohads controlled most of Morocco and ended Almoravid rule; they kept Marrakech as their capital

14

How might these characteristics of stateless societies have helped to endure for centuries?

-all families would have equal power
-no one family would have more power than the others
-this way their wouldn't be any fighting over power/control

15

How did the law help to unify Muslim society?

-it regulates all area fo human life
-LOOK AT HW

16

Ghana

-West African empire
-1st kingdom in sub saharan Africa
-upper class was attracted to Islam because they were educated (learned Arabic)
-common ppl didn't convert but stayed animists
-kingdom by the 700s; rulers were growing rich by taxing the goods that traders carried through their territory
-major cities: Walata, koumbi, Saleh
-economy: gold-salt trade

17

Gold-Salt Trade

-2 most important trade items were gold and salt
-gold came from a forest region south of the savanna between the Niger ans Senegal Rivers (miners dug it up from shafts as deep as 100 feet ro sifted it from fast moving streams)
-West Africa's savanna as rich in gold but lack salt, which was essential to human life
-Sahara contained deposits of salt
-Arab and Berber traders (salt) traded with African traders (gold)
-exchanged goods under the watchful eye of the king's tax collector

18

The Soninke

-called their ruler ghana (war chief)
-Mulsim traders began to used the word to refer to the Sonike region
-became known as Ghana

19

Mali

-emerged by 1235 to 1400's
-founders = Mande-speaking ppl, who lived south of Ghana
-it's wealth was built on gold (like Ghana)
-major cities: Timbuktu
-major rulers: sundiata, mansa musa

20

Sundiata

-Mali's first great leader
-crushed a cruel, unpopular leader
-became Mali's mansa
-took over the kingdom of Ghana and trading cities of Kumbi and Walata (military victories)---> peace and prosperity followed
-put able administrators in charge of Mali's finances, defense, and foreign affairs
-new capital = Niani---> Sundiata promoted agriculture and reestablished the gold-salt trade
-Niani became an inportant center for commerce and trade
-ppl began to call Sundiata's empire Mali, meaning "where the king lives"
-died in 1255

21

mansa

emperor

22

Mansa Musa

-one of the African Muslim rulers after Sundiata
-ruled from 1312-1332
-skilled military leader
-put down every rebelllion and exercised control over the gold-salt trade
-had a 100,000 man army, which kept orderand protected Mali from attack
-expanded Mali to wice the size of Ghana
-divided Mali into provinces and apppinted governors, who ruled fairly and efficiently
-1324-1325 = he went on the hajj, took gold with him (80 camels each with 300 lbs of gold dust) and gave it away
-he passed through Egypt and have away gold but this dropped the value of gold for 12 years
-when he returned, he ordered the building of new mosques at Timbuktu and Gao

23

Timbuktu

-became one of the most important cities of the empire (Mali)
-attracted Muslim doctors, religious leaders, and scholars, who attended it's outstanding mosques and universities

24

Ibn Battuta

-Muslim
-native of Tangier North Africa
-traveled for 27 yrs, visiting most of the countries in the Islamic world including Timbuktu and other cities in Mali
-criticized the ppl in Mali for not strictly practicing Islam's moral code
-left Mali in 1353
-1331 = visited Kilwa; he admired the way tha its Muslim rulers and merchants lived

25

Songhai

-1400's - 1591
-religion: Muslim
-ppl in the east of Mali
-capital = Gao
-lacked modern weapons
-only armed with swords and spears
-major cites: Gao, Djenne
-major rulers: Sunni Ali, Askia Muhammad
-the collapse of the Songhai empire ended a 1,000 yr period in which powerful kingdoms and empires ruled the central region of West Africa

26

Sunni Ali

-Muslim
-one of the rulers in the Songhai empire
-rule = 1464; lasted almost 30 yrs
-military commander w/ aggresive leadership
-built a pro army with riverboat fleet of war canoes and a horseback mobile fighting force
-1468 = captured Timbuktu
-5 yrs later (1473) = took Djenne (trade city woth university)
-married Djenne's queen
-died 1492
-his son succeeded him as a ruler but was replaced by Askia Muhammad after he failed to put down a revolt

27

Askia Muhammad

-37 yr rule
-set up a excellent tax system and chose able officials
-appointed officials to serve as ministers of the treasury, army, navy, and, agriculture
-under him, the empire thrived

28

Hausa

-group of ppl named after the language they spoke
-group of city-states
-emerged in between 1000 and 1200 in the area east of Mali and Songhai (modern day Nigeria)
-briefly ruled by Songhai but gained their independence
-religion: depends on the rulers religion
-Kano = noted for its woven and dyed cloth and leather goods
-Zazzau (aka: Zaria)= southernmost state; conducted slave trade
-all had similar for of government and each had its own army of mounted horsemen
-rulers held great power over their subjects abut ministers and other officials acted to check this power
-constant fighting
-economy: agriculture and trade (art, pepper, ivory, slaves, cotton, cloth); no gold

29

Yoruba

-started 1100's
-religion: animist
-ppl all spoke common language
-belonged to a number of small city-states in the forests on the southern edge of the savanna (modern day Benin and southwestern NIgeria)
-most ppl farmed
-Yoruba kings served as the most important religious and political leaders in their kingdoms

30

the Ife and the Oyo

-2 of the largest Yoruba kingdoms
-Ife = ancestors of the Yoruba ppl; developed by 1100; gifted artists who carved wood and ivory and produced terra cotta sculptures and cast in metal
-many clay and metal casts portray Ife rulers in an idealistic way
-Oyo = developed in 1600; became more prrosperous than the Ife
-both had high walls surrounding them