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The Efe

-one of the hunting-gathering societies in Africa
-home: Ituri Forest in the Democratic Republic of Congo
-modern day Efe: live in small groups of 10 to 100 ppl who are all related
-women are the gathers (get roots, yams,, mushrooms, and wild seeds from forest)
-men are the hunters (some go solo using poison tipped arrows, others hunt in groups)
-they hunt duikers, mammals (monkeys)
-trade honey, wild game, and other forest products for crops from nearby villages
-daily life is not governed by written laws



-groups of families
-the members of a lineage believe they are from a common ancestor and feel strong loyalties to one another
-it includes past generations (spirits of ancestors) and future generations (children not yet born)


stateless societies

-did not have centralized power
-authority was balanced among lineages of equal power so that no one family had too much control


The Igbo

-stateless society



-society that traces their ancestors through their fathers
-inheritance passes from father to son
-when a son marries, he, his wife, and their children remain part of his father's extended family



-society where children trace their ancestors through their mothers
-the young men inherit land and wealth from their mother's family



small antelope


age-set system

-consists of young ppl within a region who are born during a certain time period
-each age-set passes through clearly identified life stages, such as warrior or elder
-men and women have diferent life stages and each stage has it's own duties and importance
-societies (like Igbo)use the sgae-set system to teach discipline, community service, and leadership skills to their young



-part of North Africa that is today the Mediterranean coast of Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco
-northwestern and on the coast of Africa
-had contact with the rest of the world unlike the ppl in sahara and southern Africa


Islamic Law

-following the law is a religious obligation
-Muslims do not separate their personal life from theri religious life
-Islamic law regulates almost all of area of human life and helped bring order to Muslim states


the Almoravids

-strict religious brotherhood (originally a group of Berbers)
-founded by Abd Allah Ibn Yasin (religious scholar from Morocco)
-members came from a Berber group living in the western Sahara (modern day Mauritania)
-they were they first ppl who built a kingdom that tied together northern and southern parts of Africa
-they spread Islam (very devout Muslims)
-made up of ppl who followed Abd Allah Ibn Yasin's teachings
-he led the Almoravids in an effort to spread Islam through conquest
-they took Morocco and found Marrakech (their capital)
-they overran Ghana (West African empire) in 1076 and captured parts of sourthern Spain, where they were called Moors (conquered southern Spain and conquered Ghana)



fortified ministry


the Almohads

-Berber Muslim reformers and very devout Muslims
-capital: Marrakech (ppl speak French and are Muslim)
-seized power from the Almoravids
-began as a religious movement in the Atlas Mts of Morocco
-they followed the teachings of Ibn Tumart, who criticized the later Almoravid rulers for moving away from the traditional practice of Islam
-he urged his followers to strictly obey the teachings of the Que'an and Islamic law
-led by Abd al-Mumin, the Almohads fought to overthrow the Almoravids and remain trure to their view of traditional Islamic beliefs
-1148 = Almohads controlled most of Morocco and ended Almoravid rule; they kept Marrakech as their capital


How might these characteristics of stateless societies have helped to endure for centuries?

-all families would have equal power
-no one family would have more power than the others
-this way their wouldn't be any fighting over power/control


How did the law help to unify Muslim society?

-it regulates all area fo human life



-West African empire
-1st kingdom in sub saharan Africa
-upper class was attracted to Islam because they were educated (learned Arabic)
-common ppl didn't convert but stayed animists
-kingdom by the 700s; rulers were growing rich by taxing the goods that traders carried through their territory
-major cities: Walata, koumbi, Saleh
-economy: gold-salt trade


Gold-Salt Trade

-2 most important trade items were gold and salt
-gold came from a forest region south of the savanna between the Niger ans Senegal Rivers (miners dug it up from shafts as deep as 100 feet ro sifted it from fast moving streams)
-West Africa's savanna as rich in gold but lack salt, which was essential to human life
-Sahara contained deposits of salt
-Arab and Berber traders (salt) traded with African traders (gold)
-exchanged goods under the watchful eye of the king's tax collector


The Soninke

-called their ruler ghana (war chief)
-Mulsim traders began to used the word to refer to the Sonike region
-became known as Ghana



-emerged by 1235 to 1400's
-founders = Mande-speaking ppl, who lived south of Ghana
-it's wealth was built on gold (like Ghana)
-major cities: Timbuktu
-major rulers: sundiata, mansa musa



-Mali's first great leader
-crushed a cruel, unpopular leader
-became Mali's mansa
-took over the kingdom of Ghana and trading cities of Kumbi and Walata (military victories)---> peace and prosperity followed
-put able administrators in charge of Mali's finances, defense, and foreign affairs
-new capital = Niani---> Sundiata promoted agriculture and reestablished the gold-salt trade
-Niani became an inportant center for commerce and trade
-ppl began to call Sundiata's empire Mali, meaning "where the king lives"
-died in 1255





Mansa Musa

-one of the African Muslim rulers after Sundiata
-ruled from 1312-1332
-skilled military leader
-put down every rebelllion and exercised control over the gold-salt trade
-had a 100,000 man army, which kept orderand protected Mali from attack
-expanded Mali to wice the size of Ghana
-divided Mali into provinces and apppinted governors, who ruled fairly and efficiently
-1324-1325 = he went on the hajj, took gold with him (80 camels each with 300 lbs of gold dust) and gave it away
-he passed through Egypt and have away gold but this dropped the value of gold for 12 years
-when he returned, he ordered the building of new mosques at Timbuktu and Gao



-became one of the most important cities of the empire (Mali)
-attracted Muslim doctors, religious leaders, and scholars, who attended it's outstanding mosques and universities


Ibn Battuta

-native of Tangier North Africa
-traveled for 27 yrs, visiting most of the countries in the Islamic world including Timbuktu and other cities in Mali
-criticized the ppl in Mali for not strictly practicing Islam's moral code
-left Mali in 1353
-1331 = visited Kilwa; he admired the way tha its Muslim rulers and merchants lived



-1400's - 1591
-religion: Muslim
-ppl in the east of Mali
-capital = Gao
-lacked modern weapons
-only armed with swords and spears
-major cites: Gao, Djenne
-major rulers: Sunni Ali, Askia Muhammad
-the collapse of the Songhai empire ended a 1,000 yr period in which powerful kingdoms and empires ruled the central region of West Africa


Sunni Ali

-one of the rulers in the Songhai empire
-rule = 1464; lasted almost 30 yrs
-military commander w/ aggresive leadership
-built a pro army with riverboat fleet of war canoes and a horseback mobile fighting force
-1468 = captured Timbuktu
-5 yrs later (1473) = took Djenne (trade city woth university)
-married Djenne's queen
-died 1492
-his son succeeded him as a ruler but was replaced by Askia Muhammad after he failed to put down a revolt


Askia Muhammad

-37 yr rule
-set up a excellent tax system and chose able officials
-appointed officials to serve as ministers of the treasury, army, navy, and, agriculture
-under him, the empire thrived



-group of ppl named after the language they spoke
-group of city-states
-emerged in between 1000 and 1200 in the area east of Mali and Songhai (modern day Nigeria)
-briefly ruled by Songhai but gained their independence
-religion: depends on the rulers religion
-Kano = noted for its woven and dyed cloth and leather goods
-Zazzau (aka: Zaria)= southernmost state; conducted slave trade
-all had similar for of government and each had its own army of mounted horsemen
-rulers held great power over their subjects abut ministers and other officials acted to check this power
-constant fighting
-economy: agriculture and trade (art, pepper, ivory, slaves, cotton, cloth); no gold



-started 1100's
-religion: animist
-ppl all spoke common language
-belonged to a number of small city-states in the forests on the southern edge of the savanna (modern day Benin and southwestern NIgeria)
-most ppl farmed
-Yoruba kings served as the most important religious and political leaders in their kingdoms


the Ife and the Oyo

-2 of the largest Yoruba kingdoms
-Ife = ancestors of the Yoruba ppl; developed by 1100; gifted artists who carved wood and ivory and produced terra cotta sculptures and cast in metal
-many clay and metal casts portray Ife rulers in an idealistic way
-Oyo = developed in 1600; became more prrosperous than the Ife
-both had high walls surrounding them