Unit 8: Early Medieval History Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 8: Early Medieval History Deck (55)
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1

the MIddle Ages

-medieval period
-500-1500
-new society emerged
-ROOTS......
1. the classical heritage of Rome
2. the beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church
3. the customs of various Germanic tribes

2

3 ways civilization in western Europe declined after the Roman Empire fell

-Disruption of Trade = merchant's business collapsed beacuse of the invasions from land and sea; the breakdown of trade destroyed Europe's cities as economic centers (money = scarce)
-Downfall of Cities = the fall of the Roman Empire caused cities to be abandoned as centers of administration
-population shifts from the cities to the countryside
-no central gov (had local personal connections )
- no more Latin
- no more long distance communication
-almost all literacy was lost ( only ppl of the Church were literate)

3

the Decline of Learning

-Germanic invaders who invaded Rome were illiterate
-they had a rich oral of songs and legends but no written language
-level of learning shrank as families left for rural areas
-few (priests and other church officials) were literate
-few could read Greek words of literature, science, and philosophy
-knowledge of Greek (long important in Roman culture) was almost lost

4

Loss of a Common Language

-Latin changed as German-speaking ppls mixed with the Roman population
-it was still an offical language but no one understood it
-by 800s = French, Spanish, and other Roman-based languages had evolved from Latin

5

How did the concept of government change?

-Roman society was unified through loyalty to public government and written law
-Germanic societies were held together by family ties and personal loyalty, rather than citizenship in a public state
-unlike the Romans, Germanic ppls lived in small communities that were governed by unwritten rules and traditions
-every Germanic chief led a band of warriors who pledged their loyalty to him (lived inthe lord's hall during peacetime)
-he gave them food, weapons, treasure....
-worriors fought to the death at lord's side (it was a disgrace to to outlive the lord)
-they felt no obligation to obey a king they didn't know and they didn't obey officials to collect taxes/administer justice in the name of the emperor they never met
-Germanic stress on personal ties made it impossible to establishorderly gov for large territories

6

the Franks

-germanic ppls
-lived in the Roman province of Gaul, where they held power

7

Clovis

-frankish leader
-brought Christianity to the Franks
-496 = led his warriors against another Germanic army
-he feared losing
-he prayed to the Christian God (said "For I have called on my gods but i find they are far from my aid......Now I call on Thee. I Iong to believe in Thee. Only, please deliver me from my enemies"
-he won
-after he, and his 3,000 warriors asked a bishop to baptize them
-The Church in Rome welcomed Clovis and supported his military campaigns against other Germanic ppls
-511 = clovis united the Franks into one kingdom
-the alliance between the Church and Clovis's Frankish kingdom marked the start of a partnership between 2 powerful forces

8

Clothilde

-Clovis's wife
-urged him to convert to Christianity

9

monasteries

-religious communities built but the Church to help adapt to rural conditions
-became Europe's best-educated communities
-where monks lived
-monks opened schools, maintained libraries, and copied books

10

monks

-Christian men
-gave up their private possessions and devoted their lives to serving God

11

nuns

-women who followed the same way of life as the monks
-lived in convents

12

Benedict

-Italian monk
-at 15, he left school and hiked up the Sabine Hills, where he lived as a hermit (in a cave)
-wrote a book describing a strict yet practical set of rules for monasteries
-these guidelines became a model for many religious communities in western Europe

13

Scholastica

-Benedict's sister
-headed a convent
-adapted the same rules that Benedict wrote but for women

14

the Venerable Bede

-English monk
-731 = wrote a history of England
-scholars consider it the best historical work of the early Middle Ages

15

Gregory I

-aka: Gregory the Great
-590 = became pope
-broadened the authority of the papacy beyond spiritual control
-the papacy became a secular power involved in politics
-used church revenues to raise armies, repair roads, and help the poor
-negotiated peace treaties with invaders (ex: Lombards)
-the region of Italy to England and from Spain to Germany fell under his responsibility
-he strengthened the vision of Christendom

16

papacy

pope's office

17

secular

worldly

18

Christendom

-a spiritual kingdom fanning out from Rome to the most distant churches
-this idea of a churchly kingdom, ruled by a pope, would be a central theme of the Middle Ages

19

Charles Martel

-aka: Charles the Hammer
-719 = mayor of the palace
-held more power than the king
-Battle of Tours in 732 = defeated Muslim raiders from Spain (if the Muslims won, western Europe might have become part of the Muslim Empire
-his victory made him a Christian hero

20

major domo

-mayor of the palace
-became the most powerful person in the Frankish kingdom

21

Pepin the Short

-Charles Martel's son
-became king
-didn't cooperate well with the pope
-on behalf of the Church, he agreed to fight the Lombards who invaded Italy and threatened Rome
-in exchange, the pope appointed Pepin "king by the grace of God"
-died in 768
left his kingdom to his sons, Carloman and Charles

22

the Carolingian Dynasty

-began when the pope appointed Pepin "king by the grace of God"
- a family that would rule the Franks from 751-987

23

Carloman

-Chralemagne's brother
-died 771

24

Charlemagne

-Charles/Charles the Great
-6 ft 4 in tall
-built a empire greater than any known since Rome
-fought Muslims in Spain and tribes from other Germanic kingdoms
-conquered lands in the south and east and through these he spread Christianity
-he reunited western Europe for the first time since the Byzantine Empire
-800 = traveled to Rome to crush a mob that attacked the pope
-the pope crowned him emperor and the title "Roman Emperor"
-this title was given to a European king
-this event signaled the joining of the Germanic power, the Church, and the heritage of the Roman Empire
-a year before he died, he crowned his only surviving son (louis the pious) as emperor

25

Einhard

-Charlemagne's secretary

26

counts

powerful landholders

27

How did Charlemagne strengthen his royal power?

-he limited the authority of the nobles
-he sent out royal agents, who made sure the counts governed their counties justly
-he visted parts of his kingdom
-on of his greatest accomplishments was the encouragement of learning
-opened a palace school
-surrounded himself with English, German, Italian and Spanish scholars
-ordered monasteries to open schools to train future monks and priests

28

What was the source of Carolingian wealth and power?

the managements of his huge estates

29

Louis the Pious

-Charlemagne's only surviving son
-814 = crowned as emperor
-devoutly religious but an ineffective ruler
-3 sons: Lothair, Charles the Bald, and Louis the German
-they fought each other for control of the Empire
-843 = they signed the Treaty of Verdun (divided the empire into 3 kingdoms)
-as a result, the Carolingians lost power and central authority broke down
-they lack of strong rulers led to a new system of governing and landholding (feudalism)

30

fuedalism

-a political and economic system based on land ownership and personal loyalty (system of governing and landholding)
-depended on the control of land
-the fuedal systerm was based on rights and oligations