Unit 11: Middle Ages Part II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 11: Middle Ages Part II Deck (47)
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Switch to Horsepower

-horses were started to be used to pull wagons and plows instead of oxen
-the new plow had iron blades and wheels
-horse collar invented (replaces ox yoke)
-horses were stronger and faster but eat more high quality food than oxen


three-field system

-farmers plant 3 fields instead of 2--> specialized labor
-1 field had grain, 1 had legumes, the other lay fallow
-2 were planted and the other rested for a year
-it allowed farmers to grow crops on 2/3 of their land instead of just half
-changed the way ppl organized themselves on manors
-kicked off the growth in cities
-food prodcution increased



-organization of indivivuals in the same business or occupation working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members
-merchant guilds, craft guilds
-set standards for quiality of work, wages, and working condition
-they created plans for supervising training of new workers
-covered members with health insurance
-provided funeral expensives and dowries for poor girls
-built almshouses for victims of misfortune
-guaranteed quality work
-took turns policing streets
-donated windows to the Church


the Commercial Revolution

-expansion of trade and business
-changed the making and exchanging of goods
-changed transportation and payment (checks, banks)
-roads--> security


letters of credit

-a letter issued by a bank allowing the bearer to withdraw a specific amount of money from the bank or its branches
-they eliminated the need to carry large amounts of cash and made trade easier


bills of exchange

-established exhange rates between different coinage systems



-increased business at markets and fairs made merchants willings to take chances on buying merchandise that they could sella at a profit
-merchants then reinvested the profits in more goods



-parents paid for training
-lived with master and his family and required to obey him
-trained 2-7 yrs
-wasn't allowed to marry during training
-when train progressed to journeyman



-day worker
-worked for a master to earn slary
-worked 6 days a week
-needed to produce a masterpiece (finest work) to become a master
-had to be accepted byt the guild to become a master



-owned own shop
-worked with other masters to protect trade
-sometimes served in civic gov



-Chirstians lending money at intrest
-forbidden (by Church)



-unsophisicated and tiny
-first under authority of lords, but burghers won rights
-serfs abandoned maors to live in towns (become free)
-houses = built with wood, fire hazard
-streets were narrow
-ppl didn't bath, no sewers (dumped waste on streets)
-no fresh air, light, water



-merchant-class town dwellers
-demanded privileges
-allyed with kings against lords
-won rights by force (fought against landlords)



-everday language
-not latin
-common ppl could understand


How were Muslims linked to the revival of learning in Europe?

-christian scholars form Europe began visiting Muslim libraries in Spain
-Jewish scholars in Spain translated the Arabic versions of works of Aristotle.. etc into latin (science, math, philosophy, law...)



-common ppl could learn to read and write
-run by Chruch
-made up of ppl, not buildings
-originally referred to a group of scholars meeting whenever they could
-new ideas and forms of expression


Dante Alighieri

-wrote the Divine Comedy in Italian


Geoffrey Chaucer

-wrote the Canterbury Tales in English


Christine de Pisan

-wrote The Book of the City of Ladies in French


Thomas Aquinas

-argued that the most basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument
-wrote Summa Theologicae (everything he knows about religion)



-Aquinas and his followers who met at the great universities
-used their knowledge of Aristotle to debate issues of their time


William the Conqueror

-duke of Normandy
-King Edward the Confessor's cousin, who died without and heir
-vassal of French king
-claimed the English crown; invaded England with a Norman army
-won at the battle of hastings


Harold Godwinson

-William the Conqueror's rival
-killed swedish harold
-Anglo-Saxon who claimed the throne
-Halley's Comet= sign to Harold


the Battle of Hastings

-Normans and Anglo-Saxons fought
-Harold= killed by an arrow in his eye
-William declared all England his personal property (kept 1/5 for himself)
-he took the lands of the lords who supported Harold and gave them to 200 Norman lords who swore oath of loyalty to him personally


Alfred the Great

-Anglo-Saxon king from 871-899
-turned back the vikings
-he and his successors united the kingdom under one rule
-called it England ("land of the Angles")



-Danish king
-1016= conquered England (molded Anglo-Saxons and Vikings into one people)
-1042= King Edward the Confessor (descendant of Alfred the Great) took throne---> died in 1066 without an heir


Henry II

-English King from 1154-1189 (Henry Platagenet)
-added to the land that William that Conqueror (and descendants) had by marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine (France) ----> Aquitaine
-vassal to the French king because he owned land in France but also a king in his own right
-strengthened royal courts of justice (sent royal judges to every part of England a least once a year to collect taxes, settle lawsuits, and punish crimes)
-introduced the use of jury in English courts
-succeeded by Richard the Lionhearted, hero of the Third Crusade
-Richard was succeeded by John (younger brother), ruled from 1199-1216


jury in Medieval England

-group of loyal ppl (12 neighbors of the accused) who answered the judges questions about the facts of a case
-a popular means of settle disputes
-conducted only by the king's court


common law

-unified body of law formed by the rulings of England's royal judges
-basis for law in many English-speaking countries (USA)


King John

-ruled form 1199-1216
-nickname: John Softsword (not good at military)
-cruel to subjects, forced taxes (high taxes on wars)
-lost Normandy and all lands in northern France to the French under Philip Augustus
-alienated the Church
-June 15, 1215= his nobles revolted and forced him to sign the Magna Carta