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Christopher Columbus

-Genoese (Italian) sea captain/ explorer
-August 3, 1492= sailed from Spain to Americas/Caribbean (though he reached Asia)
-sailed west to get east
-landed Oct 12, 1492
-nina, pinta, sata maria
-met the natives= Taino
-called them Indians
-gave them small trinkets, they gave parrots, balls of cotton thread, VALUABLE THINGS
-he took advantage of that
-interested in gold
-1493= reurned to Spaim,; rulers sgreeed to finance 3 more trips
-Sept 1493= returned but to colonize
-brought 17 ships, 1,000 soldiers, crewmen and colonists



land that are controlled by another nation


Pedreo Alvares Cabral

-Portuguses exploerer
-1500= reached modern-day Brazil and claimed it for Portugal


Amerigo Vespucci

-Italian serving for Spaim
-1501= traveled to coast of South America
-claimed that the land wa not Asia but a "new" world
-1507= a German mapmaker named the new continent "America" in honor of Amerigo Vespucci


Ferdinand Magellan

-Portuguses explorer
-1519= led a expedition that sailed around the entire world but he died in the Phillipines (CIRCUMNAVIGATE)
-250 men, 5 ships
-only 28 men and 2 ship arrived bakc in Spain in 1522, almost 3 yrs after they left (died from disease or battle)


Vasco Nunez de Balboa

-Spanish explorer
-marched through moder-day Panama
-became the first european to see the Pacific Ocean


Hernando Cortes

-1519= landed on the shores of Mexico
-colonized some Caribbean islands
-learned of the wealth of the Aztecs
-reached Tenochtitlan
-Montezuma II (EMPEROR)= convinced that Cortes and his men were gods wearing armor
-he gave them gold
-Cortes watd more gold ("disease of the heart that only gold can cure")
-he killed Aztecs during a religious festival
-June 1520= Aztecs rebelled and drove out Cotes's forces but they fought back and conquered the Aztec Empire
1. Spanish weapons (guns) were beter than the Aztec spears
2. some other native groups helped defeat the Aztecs (some hated the Aztecs rituals---> human sacrifice)
3. DISEASE (measles, mumps, smallpox, typhus; the native were not immune
-equivalent to 4 bubonic plagues
-1519= 253 mil natives
-1523= 16.8 mil natives
-1548= 6.3 mil natives
-1605= 1 mil natives



-Spanish explorers, soldiers and fortune hunters
-took part in the conquest of the Americas in the 16th century


Francisco Pizarro

-son of infantry captain and a young peasnat woman
-raised by poor mom's family
-can't read
-1532= conquered Incan Empire
-captured Atahualpa
-killed him
-Incan capital- Cuzco



-last Incan ruler
-captured by Pizarro
-ransome= fill a room with gold and 2 with silver (24 tons of gold/silver); richest ransome in history
-he wasn't released but supposed to be burned at the stake
-if he converted to Christianity, he would be stangled instead
-he converted and was strangled
-the Incans believed that the soul needs the body after a person died (mummies)
-if he wasn burned, there would be no body


other empires conquered by the Spanish

-Mayan (at Yucatan and Guatamala)3



-Spanish settlers to the Americas
-mostly men



-mizxed Spanish and Native American population
-becuase almost all the colonists were men, they began to have relationships with or rape the natve women



-Spanish forcing the Native Americans to work
-mining, farming, ranching
-doing things the Spainish don't want to do themselves
-lords promised they would act fairly but many abused the natives or worked them to death, especially in the mines


Portuguses in Brazil

-1500= Cabral claimed Brazil for Portugal
-little gold or silver
-began growing sugar (sugar plantations)--> cleared out many forests
-the demand for sugar in Europe was great and the colony soon enriched Portugal
-settled more land for sugar production



-became the richest, most powerful nation in the world during much of the 16th century
-all b/c of Spain's American colonies
-increased military
-built a powerful navy
-created a skillful and determined army
-wealth= held bring about a golden age of art and culture
-Spanish bured the Aztec codex (all of Aztec writings)
-they wanted to wipe it out and replace it


Juan Ponce de Leon

-Spanish explorer
-1513= landed on the coast of modern-day Florida and claimed it for Spain


Francisco Vasquez de Coronado

-1540-1541= led an expedition throughout much of present-day Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas
-found littel gold
-result= Spanish monarchy assigned mostly priests to explore and colonize the future united states


Pedro de Peralta

-governor of New Mexico (Spained northern holdings)
-1609-1610= led sttlers to a tributary on the upper Rio Grande
-built Santa Fe (capital)--> "Holy Faith"
-next 2 decades= a string of Christian missions rose among the Peublo (native inhabitants of the region)
-scattered forts, missions, and small ranches were created in New Mexico, which became the headquarters for advancing the Catholic religion


Bartolome de Las Casas

-Dominican monk
-didn;t like the encomienda system
-ppl should import slaves from Africa
-1542= no more encomienda system
-he later changed his opinion about enslaving africans but other liked the idea


Jacques Cartier

-1534= reached a gulf off the eastern coast of Canada that led to a broad river
-he named it the St Lawrence River
-he follewed it inward until he reached a large island donimated by mountain (he named it Mont Reat (Mount Royal) which becam known as Montreal)


Samual de Champlain

-French explorer
-1608= sailed up the St Lawrence River with 32 colonists
-founded Quebec (became the base of France's colonial empire in North America)


New France

-France's colonial empire in North America
-covered what is now the midwestern United States and eastern
-large but sparsely populated
-many of the French colonists didn't want to raise families or build towns but they becmae traders instead (fur trade= New France's main economical activity)
-more interestedin making money


Sieur de La Salle

-explored the lower Mississippi
-claimed the entire river valley for France
-named it Louisiana in honor of the French king, Louis XIV



-coast of Virginia
-named in honor of the English king, King James, who sent 3 ships with 100 settlers to here
- settlers were mostly single men who didn't want to build towns or raise families but participated in trade
-England's first permanent settlement in North America
-it's start was terrible
-the settlers were more intersted in finding gold than planting crops
-during the first few yrs, 7/10 ppl died of hunger, disease, ot battles with the native americans
-they eventually began to plant



-persecuted for their reilgious beliefs in England
-sought religious freedom
-1620= founded a second English colony; PLYMOUTH in Massachusetts



-also sought religious freedom from England's Anglican Church
-established a larger colony at Massachusetts Bay
-they wanted to build the model community that would set an example for other Christians to follow
-early difficulties, gradually got better
-numerous families, unlike the sinlge, male population in Jamestown


Henry Hudson

-Englishman in service of the Netherlands
-1609= sailed west, searching for northwest sea route to Asia-unsuccessful
-he exploered 3 waterways that were later named after him (Hudson River, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait)


New Netherland

-the Dutch holdings in North America
-slow to attract colonists
-to encourage settlers the comoly opened it's doors to a vaiety of peoples
-the Dutch established furtrade woth the Iroquois Indians
-they built trading posts along the Hudson River ar Fort Orange (Albany) and on Manhattan Island
-Dutch merchants formed the Dutch West India Comapny
-1621= the Dutch gov grated the company permission to colonize the rigion and expand fur trade
-profited from fur trade


Colonizing the Caribbean

-French= seized control of present-day Haiti, Guadeloupe, and Marinique
-English= settle Barbados and Jamaica
-Dutch= captured modern-day Antilles and Aruba from Spain
-cotton and sugar plantations, where enslaved Africans would work
-French, English, and Dutch battle eachother for colonial supremacy
-the English defeat the Dutch (the Dutch surrendered
-1750= 1.2 mil English settlers lived in 13 colonies from Maine to Georgia