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Flashcards in The Internet Deck (61)
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A small number if companies that own backbones. Charge large sums of money to connect but do not charge each other to connect

Tier 1 Providers


Long-distance, high-speed fiber optic networks. Span the major cities of the earth and interconnect at Network Access Points



Special locations where backbones interconnect

Network Access Point (NAP)


Own smaller, regional networks and must pay the Tier 1 providers. Most of the famous companies that provide Internet access to the general public are these

Tier 2 Providers


Even more regional than tier 2 providers and connect to Tier 2 providers

Tier 3 Providers


Piece of equipment that makes the tiered Internet concept work. They connect to more than one other one, creating a big, interwoven nature of the Internet

Backbone Router


Companies that lease connections to the Internet from Tier 1 or Tier 2 providers

Internet Service Providers (ISPs)


Requires two pieces to work - hardware to dial the ISP and software to govern the connection

Dial Up Connections


Device that converts a digital bit stream into an analog signal (modulation) and converts incoming analog signals back into digital signals (demodulation). An analog communications channel is typically a telephone line, and analog signals are typically sounds



One analog cycle on a telephone line. In the early days of telephone data transmission, the rate was often analogous to bits per second. Due to advanced modulation of these cycles as well as data compression, this is no longer true



Fastest rate a phone line can achieve

2400 baud


Modems connect to telephone cables with a four-wire connector and port. Telephone cable is ______; the connectors and ports are _________

Cat1, RJ-11


Almost all internal modems connect to a _______ or ______ expansion bus slot inside the computer



Contemporary external modems connect to the computer through an available _____ port. It offers simple plug and play and easy portability between machines, plus some modems require no external electrical source, getting all power they need from that connection



Enables a computer to connect to the Internet through a dial-in connection and enjoy most of the benefits of a direct connection

Point-to-point protocol (PPP)


The process of sending telephone transmission across fully digital lines end-to-end, replacing the analog telephone system. Connects much faster than modems

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) service


Carry data and voice information at 64 Kbps

Bearer (B) channels


Carry setup and configuration information and data at 16 Kbps

Delta (D) channel


Common setup of two B/one D. Uses only one physical line, but each B channel sends 64 Kbps, doubling the throughput to 128 Kbps

Basic Rate Interface (BRI) setup


Another type of ISDN that is composed of 23 64-Kbps B channels and one 64-bit D channel. Also known as T1 lines

Primary Rate Interface (PRI)


The most common interface for your computer is this device. They look like regular modems and they come in external and internal variants. Can get ones that connect directly to LAN

Terminal Adapter (TA)


High-speed Internet connection technology that uses a regular telephone line for connectivity. It comes in several varieties and many speeds

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)


Remove the high-pitch screech of the DSL signal, enabling phones and fax machines to operate correctly

DSL Microfilters


Uses regular TV cables to serve up lightning-fast speeds. Offers faster service than most DSL connections, with upload speeds from 5 to 35+ Mbps and download speeds ranging anywhere from 15 to 1000+ Mbps



Start with an RG-6 or RG-59 cable coming into your house. The cable connects to a cable modem that then connects to a small home router or your NIC via Ethernet

Cable Internet connections


Fiber connection runs from the provider to a box somewhere in your neighborhood. This box connects to your home or office using normal coaxial or Ethernet cabling. It runs from the provider straight to a home or office, using fiber the whole way. Once inside your home/office, you can use any standard cabling/wireless to connect your computers to the Internet

Fiber-to-the-Node (FTTN)


AT&T Fiber that gives 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps for download and upload; Verizon Fios provides upload and download speeds from 50Mbps to 1Gbps; Google Fiber offers a 1-Gbps upload/download service

Fiber-to-the-Premises (FTTP)


Using high-powered, directional antennas and Ethernet bridge devices that can give you a connection up to eight miles or more. Could use another band such as 24-GHz

Line-of-Sight Wireless Internet connection


Process where you share a connection from a phone or tablet to a cellular network. Using a hotspot is a form of this



Evolved into GPRS and EDGE (2.5G tech)

Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)