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Flashcards in Firmware Deck (24)
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1

In older chipsets, a chip that connects a CPU to memory, the PCI bus, Level 2 Cache, and high-speed graphics card

Northbridge

2

In older chipsets, a chip that handled all the inputs and outputs to the many devices in the PC

Southbridge

3

Intel’s name for the chip that collects functions once performed by multiple chips known as the chipset

Platform Controller Hub (PCH)

4

Unique code corresponding to each key on the keyboard, sent from the keyboard controller to the CPU

Scan Code

5

Firmware that directly controls a particular piece of hardware. This firmware handles startup operations and low-level control of hardware such as disk drives, the keyboard, and monitor

Basic Input/Output Services (BIOS)

6

A chip that stores programs, services, exactly like RAM. Non-volatile, stored info is not erased on shutdown, and anything stored is read-only

Read-Only Memory (ROM) Chip

7

ROM tech that can be electronically reprogrammed while still in the PC. Most common storage medium of BIOS in computers today as it can be upgraded without a need to open the computer on most systems

Flash ROM

8

A chip on every motherboard that enables the CPU to talk to the basic hardware of the PC

System ROM Chip

9

Embedded programs or code stored on a ROM chip. Generally, OS-independent, thus allowing devices to operate in a wide variety of circumstances without direct OS support

Firmware

10

Modern 32-, or 64-bit firmware programming interface. Replaced the original 16-bit BIOS, it supports large capacity storage devices, additional features, and a more direct booting process

Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI)

11

A tiny bit RAM hooked up to a small battery that enabled it to hold system settings for the BIOS firmware even with the computer off. Now, incorporated into the chipset

Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Chip

12

Often informally used to refer to the CMOS setup program or system setup utility

CMOS

13

A powerful type of program that enables you to run a second (or third or fourth), software-based machine inside your physical PC. It recreates the motherboard, hard drives, RAM, network adapters, and more, and is just as powerful as a real PC

Virtual Machine

14

Technology that helps the virtual machines use your hardware more efficiently as is controlled by the BIOS (Intel Virtualization Technology/Intel VT and AMD Virtualization/AMD-V)

Hardware-Assisted Virtualization

15

A feature offered in some chassis that trips a switch when the chassis is opened

Chassis Intrusion Detection/Notification

16

A hardware platform for the acceleration of cryptographic functions and the secure storage of associated information

Trusted Platform Module (TPM)

17

Alternative way of telling the system how to talk to a piece of hardware. It stores BIOS for the card in a chip on the card itself

Option ROM

18

A file stored on the PC’s hard drive that contains all of the commands necessary to talk to whatever device it was written to support

Device Driver

19

Basic diagnostic routine completed by a system at the beginning of the boot process to make sure a display adapter and the system’s memory are installed; it then searches for an OS. If it finds one, it hands over control of the machine to the OS

Power-On Self Test (POST)

20

Series of audible tones produced by a motherboard during the POST. These tones identify whether the POST has completed successfully or whether some piece of system hardware is not working properly

Beep Codes

21

Device installed into a motherboard expansion slot that assists in troubleshooting boot programs by providing a two-digit code indicating the stop of the boot process where the problem is occurring

POST Card

22

Segments of code in a system’s BIOS that scans for an OS, looks specifically for a valid boot sector, and, when one is found, hands control over to the boot sector; then it removes itself from memory

Bootstrap Loader

23

First sector on a storage drive. The boot-up software in ROM tells the computer to load whatever program is found there. If a system disk is read, the program in the boot record directs the computer to the root directory to load the OS

Boot Sector

24

Enables you to boot a PC without any local storage by retrieving an OS from a server over a network

Preboot Execution Environment (PXE)