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Flashcards in Wireless Networking Deck (31)
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Centrally connects wireless network nodes in the same way that a hub connects wired Ethernet PCs. Many can act as switches and Internet routers

Wireless Access Point (WAP)


Networking scheme used by wireless devices to transmit data while avoiding data collisions, which wireless nodes have difficulty detecting

Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA)


Each wireless node in direct contact with every other node in a decentralized free-for-all. Suited for small groups of computers (less than a dozen or so) that need to transfer files or share printers and for temporary networks such as study groups or business meetings

Ad Hoc Mode/Peer-to-Peer Mode


Two or more wireless nodes communicating in ad hoc mode

Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS)


Use one or more WAPs to connect the wireless network nodes to a wired network segment. Default mode that is better suited to networks that need to share dedicated resources such as Internet connections and centralized databases

Infrastructure Mode


A single WAP servicing a given area

Basic Service Set (BSS)


BSS extended by adding more WAPs

Extended Basic Service Set (EBSS)


Hybrid wireless and wired network. Key characteristic is that the nodes act like routers, forwarding traffic for other nodes, but without the wires

Wireless Mesh Network )m(WMN)


Standard that defines methods devices may use to communicate via spread-spectrum radio waves

IEEE802.11 wireless Ethernet standard/Wi-Fi


Broadcasts in small, discrete chunks over the frequencies available within a certain frequency range



Two radio bands that the 802.11-based wireless technologies broadcast and receive

2.4GHz and 5GHz


A contiguous range of frequencies that is usually divided up into discrete slices (channels)



Standard that operates in the 5GHz frequency range which means that devices that use the same frequency range. Offer greater throughput than 802.11 and 802.11b at speeds up to 54 Mbps, though its actual throughput is no more than 25 Mbps in normal traffic conditions. Theoretical range tops out at about 150 feet, its max range will be lower in a typical office environment



The first standard to take off and become ubiquitous in wireless networking. Supports data throughput of up to 11 Mbps (with actual throughput averaging 4 to 6 Mbps) - on par with older wired 10BaseT networks - and a max range of 300 feet under ideal conditions. Main downside: uses a very popular frequency: 2.4GHz. Likely to run into interference from other wireless devices



Takes the best of 802.11a and 802.11b and puts them together. Offers data transfer speeds equivalent to 802.11a with the wider range of 802.11b. Runs in the 2.4 GHz band so it is backwards compatible with 892.11b



Standard that brought improvements to Wi-Fi networking, including faster speeds and new antenna tech implementations. Require all but handheld devices to use multiple antennas to implement a feature called MIMO. With up to four antennas, devices can achieve amazing speeds. Supports throughput of up to 600 Mbps although practical implementation drops that down substantially (100+ Mbps at 300+ feet). Uses transmit beamforming. Dual-band so it supports 2.4GHz and 5GHz



Enables the devices to make multiple simultaneous connections

Multiple In/Multiple Out (MIMO)


A multiple-antenna technology that helps get rid of dead spots - or at least make them not so bad

Transmit Beamforming


Natural expansion of the 802.11n standard, incorporating even more streams, wider bandwidth, and higher speed. Only uses the 5GHz band but supports dual-band operation (some support tri-band with a second 5GHz band). Uses MU-MIMO



A new version of MIMI that gives a WAP the ability to broadcast to multiple users simultaneously

Multiuser MIMO (MU-MIMO)


Protocol that implements communication through infrared devices. All versions of Windows and pretty much the whole computing industry support this stack as an industry standard. Can transfer data up to 4Mbps with a max distance between infrared devices of 1 meter. Infrared links are direct line of sight and susceptible to interference. Doesn’t have infrastructure mode, only ad hoc. Operates at half-duplex. Offers no encryption or authentication

Infrared Data Association (IrDA) protocol


Designed to create small wireless networks preconfigured to do very specific jobs. Personal area networks (PANs) that link two computers for a quick wireless network and input devices such as keyboard and mice. Uses a broadcasting method that switches between any of the 79 frequencies available in the 2.45 GHz range. Hops frequencies some 1600 times per second, making it highly resistant to interference

Bluetooth wireless technology


Supports speeds around 1Mbps. IEEE made this the basis for its 802.15 standard for wireless PANs

First gen Bluetooth (1.1, 1.2)


Backwards compatible with first gen and adds support for more speed by introducing Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) which pushes top speeds up to around 3Mbps

Second gen Bluetooth (2.0, 2.1)


Tops out at 24Mbps but this is accomplished over an 802.11 connection after Bluetooth negotiation. +HS is an optional feature

Third Gen Bluetooth (3.0+HS)


Largely focused on improving suitability for use in networked “smart” devices/appliances by reducing cost and power consumption, improving speed and security and introducing IP connectivity

Fourth Gen Bluetooth (4.0, 4.1, 4.2)


Adds options to increase speed at the expense of range or by changing packet size. Adds better support for the Internet of Things (IoT) devices like smart speakers, lights, and so on

Fifth Gen Bluetooth/Bluetooth 5


Max power usage of 100mW with max range of 100 meters

Bluetooth Class 1


Max power usage of 2.5mW with max range of 10 meters

Bluetooth Class 2


Max power usage of 1mW with max range of 1 meter

Bluetooth Class 3