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Flashcards in Mass Storage Technologies Deck (35)
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1

Traditionally composed of individual disks/platters with read/write heads on actuator arms controlled by a servo motor - all contained in a sealed case that prevents contamination by outside air

Hard Disk Drive (HDD)

2

Measurement of how fast the spinning platters spin, measured in revolutions per minute (RPM)

Spindle Speed

3

Data storage device that uses flash memory to store data

Solid-State Drive (SSD)

4

A form of multi-level cell (MLC) that stacks vertically, providing increased density and capacity. Most popular type of memory technology in SSDs

3D NAND

5

Measures how quickly it responds to a single request. Usually expressed in milliseconds or microseconds

Latency

6

Windows supported drives that combine flash memory and spinning platters to provide fast and reliable storage. Aka SHHDs.

Hybrid Hard Drives (HHD)

7

Apple’s version of hybrid hard drive

Fusion Drive

8

A series of hard drive standards defining both the older parallel ATA (PATA) and modern serial ATA (SATA) drives

Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA)

9

Implementation that integrates the controller on the disk drive itself

Parallel ATA (PATA)

10

Unique 40-pin ribbon cables used by PATA drives that are usually plugged directly into a system’s motherboard

IDE Cables

11

An internal drive program that tracks errors and error conditions within the drive

Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology (S.M.A.R.T.)

12

Serialized version of the ATA standard that offers many advantages over PATA technology, including thinner cabling, keyed connectors, and lower power requirements

Serial ATA (SATA)

13

Connects SATA devices to the expansion bus

Host Bus Adapter (HBA) or SATA Controller

14

Version of SATA that ties capable drives directly into the PCIe bus on motherboards. Each lane of PCIe 3.0 is capable of handling up to 8 Gbps of data throughput

SATA Express (SATAe) or SATA 3.2

15

Serial ATA-based connector for external hard drives and optical drives

External SATA (eSATA)

16

18 inch cable length

PATA

17

1 meter cable length

SATA

18

2 meter cable length

eSATA

19

An efficient way to work with SATA HBAs. Unlocks some of the advanced features of SATA (hot-swapping and NCQ)

Advanced Host Controller Interface (AHCI)

20

A disk optimization feature for SATA drives enabling faster read and write speeds

Native Command Queuing (NCQ)

21

Specification supports a communication connection between the OS and the SSD directly through a PCIe bus lane, reducing latency and taking full advantage of the fast speeds of higher-end SSDs. Most common format is M.2

Non-Volatile Memory Express (NVMe)

22

Long-lived storage drive technology once common in the server market. Has been through many iterations. Today, the command set lives on in Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) hard drives

Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)

23

Fast, robust storage interface based on the SCSI command set. Also support SATA drives. Used mainly in servers and storage arrays

Serial Attached SCSI (SAS)

24

The process of reading and writing data at the same time to two drives

Disk Mirroring

25

Type of disk mirroring using two separate controllers rather than one; marginally faster than traditional mirroring because one controller does not write each piece of data twice

Disk Duplexing

26

Process by which data is spread among multiple (at least 2) drives. Increases speed for both reads and writes of data. Considered RAID level 0 because it does not provide fault tolerance

Disk Striping

27

Method for providing fault tolerance by writing data across multiple drives and then including an additional drive (parity drive) that stores information to rebuild the data contained on the other drives. Requires at least three physical disks: two for the data and a third for the parity drive. This provides data redundancy at RAID levels 5, 10, and 0+1 with different options

Disk Striping with Parity

28

2+ drives working as a unit

Array

29

Uses Mirroring or Duplexing for increased data redundancy

RAID 1

30

Disk striping with distributed parity - uses block-level and parity data striping; requires 3+ drives

RAID 5