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Flashcards in Task 1 Deck (24)
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1

What is the definition of Conspiracy ?

- a conspiracy is a secret plot or agreement between two or more parties for an illegal or dishonest purpose

2

What is a contention ?

- somebody claims to be true
- but there is no reason

3

What is a reason/premise ?

- Evidence for a contention

4

What is a conclusion ?

- A contention supported by a reason

5

What is a single argument ?

- is a contention which is justified using a single premise or opposed by a single objection

6

What is a composite argument ?

- using more than one objection or premise to support the contention

7

What is a convergent argument ?

- Two premises supporting a conclusion separately and independently from one another
- part of a composite argument

8

What is a chain of reasoning ?

- Different lvl of premises building up on each other towards the contention
- part of o a composite argument

9

What is meant by a Co premises ?

- Syllogisms/dependent data
- 2 Premises have to go together otherwise they would not make any sense

10

What is meant by the golden rule ?

- Each single argument really consists of two or more co premises

11

What is meant by the rabbit rule ?

- Each significant term that is part of the conclusion should also be part of one of the premises.

12

What is meant by the holding hands rule

- ensures that a co-premise has a connection with another co-premise.
- having identical terms between co premises which are not given in the conclusion

13

What are the motives to believe in conspiracy theories ?

- Hard to falsify
- epistemic
- Existential
- Social reasons

14

What are some characteristics of people which use conspiracy theories ?

- Low education
- Lower levels of analytic thinking
- Likely to turn to a conspiracy when anxious
- Believing in paranormal and supernatural phenomena
- Feelings of uncertainty, powerlessness
- narcissism, Machiavellianism
- Extreme political ideology
- Minorities

15

What are the causes of conspiracy theories ?

- Evolutionary by-product hypothesis
- State of affairs (disaster, war)
- Development of technologies (wiretapping)
- Adaptive-conspiracism hypothesis
- Error-management theory

16

What does epistemic mean ?

Desire for understanding

17

What does Existential mean ?

Desire for control over own life

18

What is meant by the by-product hyothesis ?

- it had no purpose it is just a by product effect of evolution

19

What is meant by the Adaptive-conspiracism hypothesis / Error-management theory ?

- It had a purpose
- By product tehory: It is better to have have a typ 1 error then a typ2 !!

20

What are some charcteritics of critical societys ?

1. No absolute respect for established views
2. No fear of challenges to an existing theory

21

What are some charcteritics of non critical societys ?

- A protective attitude with respect to the current category system. Everything that is not in line with it is taboo
- positive attitude regrading the past

22

How do u become a society with critical tradition ?

- The availability of a simple writing system and sufficient people who are able to read and write
- Culturally heterogeneous communities
- Trade-travel-exploration complex (Horton)

23

What is the definition of the Ramsey theory ?

- Given enough elements in a set or structure, some particular interesting pattern among them is guaranteed to emerge ! (mathematical principle) One example would be: star sign

24

What is meant by an objection ?

- evidence against a contention