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Flashcards in Task 3 Deck (38)
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1

What is meant by a fallacy ?

- defect in argument consists in something other than false premises alone
- it is a mistake of reasoning

2

What is meant by formal and informal fallacy ?

- Formal: identified by examining form / structure
- Informal: identified by examining the content

3

What is meant by the fallacy "appeal of force "?

- If you threaten someone to agree to an conclusion then it is not a valid argument

4

What is meant by the fallacy "appeal to pity" ?

- you try to gain support of your conclsuion via pity (mitleid)

5

What is meant by the fallacy "The appeal to the people "
- Also mention the direct and indirect approach !

- direct: Evoke mentality / euphoria with the audience to outvalue rational logic (larger group)
- Indirect: appeal to individual by focusing on some aspect of their relationship with the crowd (directed at only one person)

6

What is meant by the bandwagon argument ?

- you convince someone because you focus one the aspect "if he does not agree he would feel left out " !
- used by "the appeal to the peole"

7

What is meant by appeal to vanity ?

- associate conclusion/product with someone who is admired
- used by "the appeal to the peole"

8

What is meant by "Ad hominem abusive fallacy" ?

- if you use in your argumentation verbal agression

9

What is menat by "ad hominem circumstantial fallacy" ?

- using a current circumstences to make an argument invalid

10

What is meant by the "Tu quoque fallacy" ?

- When one of the person refers to something you have done in the past as well to justify an action
- it is about characteristics
- "you too"

11

What is meant by "the straw man fallacy" ?

- The straw man fallacy is committed when an arguer distorts/deforms an opponent’s argument for the purpose of more easily attacking it
- It seem like the real argument was demolished but actually it was all about the deformed one

12

What is meant by "the mising the point fallacy" ?

- arguments/premises supports a conclusion but then one another oftern vagiely related to the first is drawn

13

What is meant by "the red herring fallacy ? "

- divert attention by changing subject to a different sometimes subtly related one to then draw a conclusion about this different subject
- switching the content of an argumentation

14

What is meant by the fallacy of weak induction ?

- Connection between premises conclusion is not strong enough
- often emotional grounds for believing the conclusion
(overall fallacy)

15

What is meant by "the appeal to unqualified autohirty fallacy ? "

- when you belief/trust someone who is not trustworthy
- lack the expertise, might be biased

16

What is meant by "the appeal to ignorance fallacy " ? (As a help try to create an example)
-> also name the two exception

-premise states that nothing has been proven one way so conclusion is that it has to be the other way aroung
- Example: Nobody has proven that X is true -> conlcusion: X is false !
-> Exception: 1. Research and then courtroom

17

What is meant by the "hasty generalization fallacy" ?

- the sample is not representative of the group
- Conclusion is invalid because of using the wrong sample

18

What is meant by "the fallacy of false cause" ?

- occurs whenever the link between premises and conclusion depends on some imagined causal connection that probably does not exist
- Chearleader example

19

What is meant by "the fallacy of slippery slope ?"

- Usually a conclusion rests on a chain reaction (Multiple arguments building up on each other)
- but in this fallacy they do not because arguments do not really build up on each other

20

What is meant by "the fallacy of weak analogy" ? Use an example to describe the fallacy"

- is committed when the analogy is not strong enough to support the conclusion that is drawn.
- In my notes they used the "blue car" analogy as an example

21

What is meant by "the fallacy of begging the question?" Also explain how the fallacy achives it goal !

- whenever the arguer creates the illusion that inadequate premises provide adequate support for the conclusion
1. Leaving out possibly false key premise
2. just formulate a possibly false premise as the conclusion (using differnt language)
3. reasoning in a circle

22

What is menat by "the fallacy of complex question "?

- two/more questions are asked and a single answer is given to them both
- it is about an unjustified presumption

23

What is meant by "the fallacy of false ditchotomy "

- When the argument states that there is only 2 options and one of them is really bad
- "either or"
- one of the premises is usually so bad that you know the conclusion before asking the question
- Usually that is never the case that only twop options are offered

24

What is meant by the fallacy of "the fallacy of suppressed evidence" ?

-if an arguer leaves out or ignores important piece of evidence
- and hides certain information

25

What is meant by "the fallaccy of equivocation"?

- word used in 2 different ways
- word means in the first premises something different then in comparison to the second one

26

What is meant by "The fallacy of amphiboly" ?

- occurs when the arguer misinterprets a statement and draws based on that interpretation a wrong conclusion

27

What is meant by "The fallacy of composition" ?

- when a conclusion is over generalized by an arguer (from specific to a whole)

28

What is meant by "the fallacy of divison" ?

- reverse of composition
- from whole to specific

29

What is the difference between the fallacy of hasty generalization vs composition ?

- Ask someone

30

Name the 7 conditions which decides if an premis is valid:

- It has to met at least one or more of the 7 conditions
1. It is supported by a sub-argument that is convincing
2. It is known prior to be true
3. It is cogently supported elsewhere by the arguer or another person
4. It is supported via common knowledge
5. It is supported by a person with an appropriate testimony/experience (zeugnis).
6. It is supported by an proper authority
7. It is not known to be unacceptable or acceptable and can serve provisionally as the basis for argument (in hypothetic terms)