Flashcards in Task 3 Deck (38)
What is meant by a fallacy ?
- defect in argument consists in something other than false premises alone
- it is a mistake of reasoning
What is meant by formal and informal fallacy ?
- Formal: identified by examining form / structure
- Informal: identified by examining the content
What is meant by the fallacy "appeal of force "?
- If you threaten someone to agree to an conclusion then it is not a valid argument
What is meant by the fallacy "appeal to pity" ?
- you try to gain support of your conclsuion via pity (mitleid)
What is meant by the fallacy "The appeal to the people "
- Also mention the direct and indirect approach !
- direct: Evoke mentality / euphoria with the audience to outvalue rational logic (larger group)
- Indirect: appeal to individual by focusing on some aspect of their relationship with the crowd (directed at only one person)
What is meant by the bandwagon argument ?
- you convince someone because you focus one the aspect "if he does not agree he would feel left out " !
- used by "the appeal to the peole"
What is meant by appeal to vanity ?
- associate conclusion/product with someone who is admired
- used by "the appeal to the peole"
What is meant by "Ad hominem abusive fallacy" ?
- if you use in your argumentation verbal agression
What is menat by "ad hominem circumstantial fallacy" ?
- using a current circumstences to make an argument invalid
What is meant by the "Tu quoque fallacy" ?
- When one of the person refers to something you have done in the past as well to justify an action
- it is about characteristics
- "you too"
What is meant by "the straw man fallacy" ?
- The straw man fallacy is committed when an arguer distorts/deforms an opponent’s argument for the purpose of more easily attacking it
- It seem like the real argument was demolished but actually it was all about the deformed one
What is meant by "the mising the point fallacy" ?
- arguments/premises supports a conclusion but then one another oftern vagiely related to the first is drawn
What is meant by "the red herring fallacy ? "
- divert attention by changing subject to a different sometimes subtly related one to then draw a conclusion about this different subject
- switching the content of an argumentation
What is meant by the fallacy of weak induction ?
- Connection between premises conclusion is not strong enough
- often emotional grounds for believing the conclusion
What is meant by "the appeal to unqualified autohirty fallacy ? "
- when you belief/trust someone who is not trustworthy
- lack the expertise, might be biased
What is meant by "the appeal to ignorance fallacy " ? (As a help try to create an example)
-> also name the two exception
-premise states that nothing has been proven one way so conclusion is that it has to be the other way aroung
- Example: Nobody has proven that X is true -> conlcusion: X is false !
-> Exception: 1. Research and then courtroom
What is meant by the "hasty generalization fallacy" ?
- the sample is not representative of the group
- Conclusion is invalid because of using the wrong sample
What is meant by "the fallacy of false cause" ?
- occurs whenever the link between premises and conclusion depends on some imagined causal connection that probably does not exist
- Chearleader example
What is meant by "the fallacy of slippery slope ?"
- Usually a conclusion rests on a chain reaction (Multiple arguments building up on each other)
- but in this fallacy they do not because arguments do not really build up on each other
What is meant by "the fallacy of weak analogy" ? Use an example to describe the fallacy"
- is committed when the analogy is not strong enough to support the conclusion that is drawn.
- In my notes they used the "blue car" analogy as an example
What is meant by "the fallacy of begging the question?" Also explain how the fallacy achives it goal !
- whenever the arguer creates the illusion that inadequate premises provide adequate support for the conclusion
1. Leaving out possibly false key premise
2. just formulate a possibly false premise as the conclusion (using differnt language)
3. reasoning in a circle
What is menat by "the fallacy of complex question "?
- two/more questions are asked and a single answer is given to them both
- it is about an unjustified presumption
What is meant by "the fallacy of false ditchotomy "
- When the argument states that there is only 2 options and one of them is really bad
- "either or"
- one of the premises is usually so bad that you know the conclusion before asking the question
- Usually that is never the case that only twop options are offered
What is meant by the fallacy of "the fallacy of suppressed evidence" ?
-if an arguer leaves out or ignores important piece of evidence
- and hides certain information
What is meant by "the fallaccy of equivocation"?
- word used in 2 different ways
- word means in the first premises something different then in comparison to the second one
What is meant by "The fallacy of amphiboly" ?
- occurs when the arguer misinterprets a statement and draws based on that interpretation a wrong conclusion
What is meant by "The fallacy of composition" ?
- when a conclusion is over generalized by an arguer (from specific to a whole)
What is meant by "the fallacy of divison" ?
- reverse of composition
- from whole to specific
What is the difference between the fallacy of hasty generalization vs composition ?
- Ask someone