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Flashcards in Task 2 Deck (22)
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1

What are signal words indicating consequences or conclusions ?

1. So
2. Accordingly
3. We can deduce that
4. Therefore
5. Indicates that
6. Entails that
7. Hence
8. It follows that
9. Implies that
10. Whence
11. Demonstrates that
12. Leads us to believe that
13. Thus (not always)
14. Proves that
15. For this reason
16. Consequently
17. Then
18. wherefore
19. we may conclude
20. we may infer
21. it must be that
22. As a result

2

What are the signal words indicating premises or reasons ?

1. Because
2. Firstly...
3. Owing to the fact that
4. Since (not always)
5. On the grounds that
6. On the assumption that
7. For (not always)
8. As indicated by
9. On the supposition that
11. May be inferred from
12. Is implied by the view that
13. Being as
14. Follows from
15. Whereas
16. In as much as
17. May be deduced from
18. For the reason that
20. In the light of the fact that
21. Since
22. given that / for the reason that

3

What is meant by a deductive argument ?

- It is an Argument which states that = it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false
- from general to specific
- can be either right(valid) or wrong(invalid)
- and is used in mathemtaics and by definitions

4

What is meant by a inductive argument ?

- It is an Argument which states that = it is improbable (unwahrscehinlich) that the premises be true and the conclusion false
- Can be either strong or weak

5

Name some indicator words regarding deductive arguments:

- necessarily , ‘certainly,’’ ‘‘absolutely,’’ and ‘‘definitely.’’

6

Name some indicator words regarding inductive arguments:

- probably ‘improbable,’’ ‘‘plausible,’’ ‘‘implausible,’’ ‘‘likely,’’ ‘‘unlikely,’’ and ‘‘reasonable to conclude.

7

What are not arguments ?

1. question
2. Piece of advice
3. statment of belief and oppinion
4. command
5. warnings
6. Expository passage
7. illustrations
8. explanation

8

What is a dispute ?

- A claim to which several reasons and objections are linked.

9

What is a counterargument ?

- You have one contantion
- And u have a objection and a reason on the same lvl

10

Which rule do we use to identify a premise ?

- Use "because or Therefore " in order to identfy a premis or concluison
- Because = premise
- Therefore = conclusion

11

What do we have to be aware of regarding "if then" statements ?

- They allway must be constructed in a single claim
- They can not be splited up in a Co premise !!

12

What is the definition of a statement ?

- A sentence that can be either true or false
- It conatins a truth value

13

What is so tricky regarding non arguments ? And what do u have to be aware of ?

- They can have premises and a conclsuion but still lack on evidence !!

14

What is the definition of a "expository passage" regarding non arguments ?

- It starts of with a topic sentecse followed by one or more sentece that only devlope the topic

15

What is the definition of a "illustrations" regarding non arguments ?

- Those are examples and not arguments

16

What is the definition of a "explanations" regarding non arguments ?

- only shed light on the explained event but does not prove it

17

What is meant by a extensional definition ?

- is one that assigns a meaning to a term by indicating the members of the class

18

What is meant by a intensional definition ?

- is one that assigns a meaning to a word by indicating the qualities or attributes that the word connotes

19

What is meant by a a lexical definition ?

- reporting the meaning that a word already has in a language

20

What is meant by a stipulative definition ?

- giving a meaning to a word for the first time or replacing an old one

21

What is meant by sound argument ?

Valid argument + All true premises = Sound argument
- Deductive reasoning

22

What is meant by cogent argument ?

Strong argument + All true premises = cogent argument
- inductive reasoning