Flashcards in Task 5.2 Deck (36)
What was the originally tool for gaining knowledge ? And by who was it found ?
- Deductive reasoning
Who made the first distinction between indcutive and deductive reasoning ?
- Aristotle (but still gave more attention to deductive)
What is meant by deductive reasoning ?
- form of reasoning in which one starts from known statements and deduces new conclusions
- Example: ‘No children younger than 6 months talk, Harriet is a child younger than 6 months, therefore Harriet does not talk’
What is meant by inductive reasoning ?
- Inductive reasoning, on the other hand, is a form of reasoning in which likely conclusions are drawn on the basis of a series of converging observations
Name the core belief of inductive reasoning ?
- observations rather than personal opinions can be controlled and replicated by others
What is meant by the logical positivism ?
- identified verification as the core principle of the scientific method
- it is scientific only if it can be verified as true/false through value free observation
What are three of the core beliefs of logical positivism ?
- philosophy should abandon its metaphysical questions
- used demacration criteria
- Deductive reasoning was only used regarding think which were already known
- Observation -> induction -> verification
What is meant by demacration criteria ?
- observations need a set of criteria which need to be ahistorical (applicable at all time) and are universal
What is meant by the correspondance theory of truth ?
- the assumption of a direct relationship between reality and perception
- used by logical positvism
What are the cons of logical positvism?
- Perception is more than sensing isolated facts it involves interpretation to understand
- It is about background knowlede and unobservable varaiables
- Knowledge can’t be produced from facts alone
What was poppers theory regarding logic ?
- Identified logic via falsification
What is meant by falsification ?
scientific theories are different from non-scientific theories becuase scientific theories are falsifiable
What is meant by the degree of falsiability ?
- the more falsifiable (dependent on level of detail) a theory the better the theory is
What is meant by the Hypothetico deductive method ?
- science better considered as the formulation of theories
- uses inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning (educated guessing) to formulate theories which could be then falsified (trial and error)
Why is it so difficult to use falsification ?
- because of the conformaton bias
What is the conformation bias ?
- The tendency people have to search for evidence that confirms their opinions
What were the problems with poppers theory ?
- Popper’s insistence on replacing falsified theories by bold alternatives as soon as they are falsified doesn’t agree with scientific practice which seems too radical
- many scientist cheated with ad hoc modification
What is meant by ad hoc modifications ?
- modifiaction which make the arguments less falsifiable
- usually from a very detailed theory to a more broader one
What is meant by kuhns scientific theory ?
- Supports poppers idea that there has to be a priority on the theory instead of a priority on observation
- it is an ongoing cycle
1. Pre science 2. normal science 3. crisis 4. revolution...
According to kuhn: What is meant by pre science ?
- unorganised facts, observations and models
- Later In this stage a paradigm will be formed which bring the frame work together
According to kuhn: What is meant by normal science ?
- scientists solve puzzles within the existing paradigm and defend the paradigm against others who question
- stage of falsification
- modification are also done during the stage
According to kuhn: What is meant by crisis ?
- During crises = unexplained observations (anomalies show up)
- Ad hoc modification show up
- similar to pre science phase
- searching for alternatives
According to kuhn: What is meant by revolution ?
- from degernerative research programme to progressive research programm
- > leads to a paradigm shft
What is meant degernerative research programme ?
- theory lags behind data
- a paradigm that does not allow researchers to make new predictions and that requires an increasing number of ad hoc modifications to account for the empirical findings
- By lakatos
What is meant by progressive research programme ?
- theory keeps ahead of data
- a paradigm that allows researchers to make new, unexpected predictions that can be tested empirically
- by lakatos
What are some cons regarding kuhn ?
- Never endling cycle -> paradigm shifts not necessarily better, just different (can it be considered progress?)
- controversy between idealism and realism (kuhn said it was all about idealism and scientist stated that it is about realism)
What is meant by Idealism ?
- the world as we know it is a construction of the mind
- human knowledge does not correspond to reality
What is meant by realism ?
- Scientists claim they were discovering the physical reality
- human knowledge corresponds to the reality
What is meant by postmodernist ?
- someone who questions the special status of science and sees scientific explanations as stories told by a particular group of scientists
- critic on popper and kuhn because they would be subjective