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What was the originally tool for gaining knowledge ? And by who was it found ?

- Deductive reasoning
- Plato


Who made the first distinction between indcutive and deductive reasoning ?

- Aristotle (but still gave more attention to deductive)


What is meant by deductive reasoning ?

- form of reasoning in which one starts from known statements and deduces new conclusions
- Example: ‘No children younger than 6 months talk, Harriet is a child younger than 6 months, therefore Harriet does not talk’


What is meant by inductive reasoning ?

- Inductive reasoning, on the other hand, is a form of reasoning in which likely conclusions are drawn on the basis of a series of converging observations


Name the core belief of inductive reasoning ?

- observations rather than personal opinions can be controlled and replicated by others


What is meant by the logical positivism ?

- identified verification as the core principle of the scientific method
- it is scientific only if it can be verified as true/false through value free observation
- Verificationism


What are three of the core beliefs of logical positivism ?

- philosophy should abandon its metaphysical questions
- used demacration criteria
- Deductive reasoning was only used regarding think which were already known
- Observation -> induction -> verification


What is meant by demacration criteria ?

- observations need a set of criteria which need to be ahistorical (applicable at all time) and are universal


What is meant by the correspondance theory of truth ?

- the assumption of a direct relationship between reality and perception
- used by logical positvism


What are the cons of logical positvism?

- Perception is more than sensing isolated facts it involves interpretation to understand
- It is about background knowlede and unobservable varaiables
- Knowledge can’t be produced from facts alone


What was poppers theory regarding logic ?

- Identified logic via falsification


What is meant by falsification ?

scientific theories are different from non-scientific theories becuase scientific theories are falsifiable


What is meant by the degree of falsiability ?

- the more falsifiable (dependent on level of detail) a theory the better the theory is


What is meant by the Hypothetico deductive method ?

- science better considered as the formulation of theories
- uses inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning (educated guessing) to formulate theories which could be then falsified (trial and error)


Why is it so difficult to use falsification ?

- because of the conformaton bias


What is the conformation bias ?

- The tendency people have to search for evidence that confirms their opinions


What were the problems with poppers theory ?

- Popper’s insistence on replacing falsified theories by bold alternatives as soon as they are falsified doesn’t agree with scientific practice which seems too radical
- many scientist cheated with ad hoc modification


What is meant by ad hoc modifications ?

- modifiaction which make the arguments less falsifiable
- usually from a very detailed theory to a more broader one


What is meant by kuhns scientific theory ?

- Supports poppers idea that there has to be a priority on the theory instead of a priority on observation
- it is an ongoing cycle
1. Pre science 2. normal science 3. crisis 4. revolution...


According to kuhn: What is meant by pre science ?

- unorganised facts, observations and models
- Later In this stage a paradigm will be formed which bring the frame work together


According to kuhn: What is meant by normal science ?

- scientists solve puzzles within the existing paradigm and defend the paradigm against others who question
- stage of falsification
- modification are also done during the stage


According to kuhn: What is meant by crisis ?

- During crises = unexplained observations (anomalies show up)
- Ad hoc modification show up
- similar to pre science phase
- searching for alternatives


According to kuhn: What is meant by revolution ?

- from degernerative research programme to progressive research programm
- > leads to a paradigm shft


What is meant degernerative research programme ?

- theory lags behind data
- a paradigm that does not allow researchers to make new predictions and that requires an increasing number of ad hoc modifications to account for the empirical findings
- By lakatos


What is meant by progressive research programme ?

- theory keeps ahead of data
- a paradigm that allows researchers to make new, unexpected predictions that can be tested empirically
- by lakatos


What are some cons regarding kuhn ?

- Never endling cycle -> paradigm shifts not necessarily better, just different (can it be considered progress?)
- controversy between idealism and realism (kuhn said it was all about idealism and scientist stated that it is about realism)


What is meant by Idealism ?

- the world as we know it is a construction of the mind
- human knowledge does not correspond to reality


What is meant by realism ?

- Scientists claim they were discovering the physical reality
- human knowledge corresponds to the reality


What is meant by postmodernist ?

- someone who questions the special status of science and sees scientific explanations as stories told by a particular group of scientists
- critic on popper and kuhn because they would be subjective


What is meant by the science war ?

- debate between scientists and postmodernists