Stone Age (7000BC-2500BC) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Stone Age (7000BC-2500BC) Deck (47)
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1

Date of Stone Age

7000bc-2500bc

2

3 Stages of Stone Age

-Early Stone Age
-Middle Stone Age
-New Stone Age

3

Mesolithic Period definition and date

Middle Stone Age (7000-3700BC)

4

Mesolithic Period

-First human settlers lived by hunting & gathering
-Settled mostly near riverbanks & lakes
-Early housing consisted of animal skins spread over a bowl-shaped timber frame

5

Neolithic period

New Stone Age

6

Megalithic

Large stone monuments

7

Portal Dolmen

Megalithic monument based off a tripod, eg. Poulnabrone Co. Clare

8

Lithos

Large stone

9

Court Cairn

Megalithic monument made up of upright stones divided into different chambers. Eg. Creevykeel, Co. Sligo

10

Megas

Big

11

Neolithic Period - Developments

1. Time of great change
2. Development of farming
3. Harvesting of cereal crops (wheat and barley)
4. Breeding of animals into fields
5.Land was cleared of trees and divided
6.Tools - stone axes made to chop trees
7. Contact with lands overseas
8. Highly organised people, can be seen from house plans, stone tools, pottery fragments, stone tombs
9. Housing more permanent with dwellings of circular + rectangular shapes

12

Technology during Neolithic Period (tools and weapons)

-Wood + stone only materials available
- Some hard stones could used as knives, scrapers, chisels, axes, spearheads, arrowheads
-Axes for felling trees + chopping wood were made by tying carefully shaped + polished stone axe heads onto wooden handles
-Wood used to make tools for digging + ploughing + some vessels
-Large stones for buildings/structures moved by dragging & levering + possibly using logs as rollers to ease progress of largest stones

13

Megalithic Monuments (huge stone monuments) Function

-Resting places for the dead
-Lasting monuments to ancestors
-Perhaps symbols of power

14

3 types of megalithic tombs

-Portal dolmens
-Court cairn
-Passage grave

15

Passage tombs

-On elevated ground
-Often found in groups
-Newgrange, Knowth, Dowth - Boyne Valley
-Narrow passage to central burial chamber
-Upright slabs of rock + roof by horizontal slabs
-Corbelled sone roof
-Covered by circular mound of earth + small stones
-Surrounded by large slabs (kerbstones)

16

Brú na Bóinne : Boyne Valley Culture

-Neolithic Boyne Valley culture
-On bend of River Boyne
-Neolithic farming population
-Forty passage tombs
-Largest collection of megalithic art in western Europe

17

Newgrange Passage Grave topics

1. Construction - when
2. Location
3. Structure
4. Construction techniques
5. Materials used
6. Function
7. Decoration
8. Stone Carving Techniques

18

Functions of passage tombs

-Hold remains of important people
-Astronomically align with sun for solstices / equinoxes
-Enact sun worship
-Hold pagan rituals relating to belief in an afterlife or a 'cult of the dead'
-Indicate tribal territories

19

Meaning of motifs

-Unclear
-Probably represent solar + lunar cycles
-Possible religious meaning
-Possible form of writing
-May represent human faces

20

Locations of decorations at Newgrange

-Entrance stone
-Kerbstone 52
-Lintel above the roofbox
-Corbelled stones in roof of chamber
-Standing stone in chamber of Newgrange

21

Essay structure

1 - Introduction
2 - Discussion of artefacts with headings
3 - Reference to statement
4 - Conclusion

22

Newgrange Passage Tomb - Stone Carving Techniques

1 - Dressing Stone
2 - Incision
3 - Picking (chipcarving)

23

Dressing stone

Surface was hammered to take out rough bits, filed smooth with rough stone

24

Incision

Shallow linear designs scratched + scraped onto stone

25

Picking (chipcarving)

Pointed flint/quartz stone to chip out motifs so they stood out in low relief

26

Newgrange - construction

3000-2500 BC

27

Newgrange Structure

-Consists of passage + burial chamber covered by earthen mound
-mound - 11m high, 80m in diameter
-Passage 19m long
-21 upright stones line passage on right, 22 on left
-Horizontal slabs form roof of passage
-Burial chamber is cross-shaped
-5.5m in diameter
-Three side chambers off central chamber
-Stone basins contain ashes + bones of dead in side chambers
-97 kerbstones surround outer surface of passage grave
-12 large standing stones circle tomb
-Special opening callwed roofbox above doorway
-Purpose

28

Roofbox purpose

Allows rising sun to travel up passage + illuminate burial chamber each year on Winter Solstice (21st Dec)

29

Newgrange Location

-Located Bru na Boinne, Co. Meath, area 4km long + 3km wide
-Enclosed by bend in river Boye
-40 mounts in area, Newgrange, Knowth, Dowth being largest

30

Newgrange - construction techniqes

-Roof of chamber constructed using corbelling technique
-large slabs overlap on top of each other in layers
-roof (6m high) sloped inwards like a dome + capstone sealed the top
-Builders cut grooves into outer roof stones to channel rainwater away from chamber