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Flashcards in Medieval Europe - Romanesque Architecture Deck (27)
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1

Romanesque

like the romans

2

Romanesque Architecture

-blended ancient Roman + Byzantine architecture with Germanic and Insular art styles
-based on the rounded Roman arch

3

expansion of Monasticism

monasteries were important centres of education and art

4

Why did it become necessary to build churches?

Became necessary to build large Romanesque churches in order to accommodate growing numbers of clergy and pilgrims venerating the relics of saints

5

floor plan features of romanesque church

-nave
-crossing
-choir and apse
-transept
-ambulatory
-radiating chapels
-side aisles

6

nave

runs from entrance portal to centre of church

7

transept

area in church that runs north-south perpendicular to nave

8

crossing

area where transept meets nave, usually topped w/ domed tower

9

choir and apse

main altar area at eastern arm

10

ambulatory

arcaded gallery for pilgrims to walk around main altar (apse)

11

side aisles

separated from central nave by a row of arches (arcade) supported by massive rectangular piers

12

radiating chapels

smaller chapels (often holding a relic) situated on either side of apse

13

Structural elements of a Romanesque church

-vault
-barrel vault
-groin vault
-column
-pier
-portal

14

vault

arched stone ceiling extending from wall to wall of the nave or aisles of a church

15

barrel vault

long uninterrupted arch forming a semicircular root vault over a rectangular space

16

groin vault

formed by the intersection of 2 barrel vaults + usually square in plan

17

column

cylindrical upright support

18

pier

upright support usually rectangular (sometimes square) for supporting arches

19

portal

entrance to church situated at its west end

20

outward thrust

-roof of vaults collapsing caused by the pressure from the heavy stone roof
-mostly seen in barrel vaults, corrected in groin vaults

21

tympanum

the space between the horizontal lintel of a doorway and the rounded or pointed arch above it

22

characteristics of Romanesque Architecture

1. massive structures (block in shape)

2. semicircular, rounded Roman arches

3. fireproof vaulted stone roofs

4. thick walls w/ small windows

5. decorative shallow blind arches in walls

6. large piers needed to support arches

7. large tower(s)

8. external facade of building focused on tympanum over doorway

9. sculpture aimed at teaching bible to illiterate

10. columns topped w/ figurative capitals

11. tympanum usually decorated w/ christ in centre, flanked by biblical figures

23

types of buildings

church
basilica
cathedral

24

church

building used for religious activities

25

basilica

signifies a building that:
has similarities to basilicas of ancient Rome/might have been designed by a pope

26

cathedral

a Christian church that contains seat of a bishop

27

3 examples of Romanesque churches

St Foy de Conques, France

Basilica of Mary Magdalene in Vezelay, France

St Lazare Cathedral in Autun, France