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1

centuries

12th-16th centuries

2

3 main characteristics of Gothic architecture

-pointed arches
-ribbed vaults
-flying buttresses

3

gothic cathedrals

-rapid expansion of trade in eu
-expensive cathedrals built in northern France where Gothic style of architecture developed

4

gothic

word refers particularly to medieval architecture based on pointed arch

5

origins of the gothic style

-St. Denis Cathedral in Paris
-12th century
-Abbot SUger
-Lasted until 16th century

6

functions of gothic cathedrals

-sculpture + stained glass educated CHristians
-huge size emphasised power + majesty of church
-high vaulted ceilings pointed to heaven

7

pointed (lancet) arch

-less sideways thrust (than round arch)
-used in arcades, doorways, galleries, windows
-allowed for creation of rib vaulting

8

rib vaulting

-system of stone ribs made w/ pointed arches at steep angle
-carry weight through piers/columsn to ground
-use of lighter stones between ribs reduces weight of ceiling
-allowed for taller cathedrals + more windows

9

flying buttresses

-formed usually by a half arch of stone (flyer) which carries thrust of roof to outside
-reduced need for thick walls
-made taller cathedrals + larger windows possible

10

interior elevation

celerestory
triforium
arcade

11

clerestory

-only part of nave w/ windows
-the uppermost wall lining nave on both sides
-architects lit up nave by increasing height of clerestory w/ aid of flying buttresses

12

triforium

windowless passage w/ serioes of arches built over vaulting of side aisles

13

arcade

series of arches carried on piers (pillars)

14

comparison: Romanesque architecture characteristics

-rounded arches
-barrel vaults
-heavy vaulted ceilings
-thick walls
-massive piers + thick columns
-buttresses built into walls
-sometimes less obvious cross floor plan
-dark interiors, few windows
-little use of stained glass
-small simple windows

15

Gothic architecture characteristics

-pointed arches
-rib + groin vaults
-lighter vaulted ceilings
-thinner vaults
-thinner piers + columns
-flying buttresses
-obvious cross floor plan
-bright interiors, many windows
-much use of stained glass
-large ornamental windows w/ tracery
-emphasis of height + light
-towers + spires
-increased use of sculptural deco

16

Gothic styles

-Early Gothic (1140-1200)
-High Gothic (1200-1250)
-Rayonnant Gothic (1250-1350)
-Flamboyant / Late Gothic (1350-1500)

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Gothic churches

St Denis Cathedral
Notre Dame Cathedral
Reims Cathedral
Roven Cathedral
Chartres Cathedral

18

St. Denis Cathedral in Paris - style

Early Gothic Style

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St. Denis Cathedral in Paris - bg info

-Abbot Suger org its rebuilding
-western facade rebuilt w/ 3 portals + rose window
-rebuilt choir, ambulatory, radiating chapels
-Seen as first Gothic building

20

St. Denis Cathedral in Paris - function

-church for adjoining monastery
-burial place of kings, place of pilgrimage to relics

21

St. Denis Cathedral in Paris - stained glass

-Abbot Suger saw sunlight as reflection of God's eternal light
-plenty of stained glass windows --> brightly lit

22

St. Denis Cathedral in Paris - how brightly lit interior was achieved

-rib vaults supported by pointed arches
-lightness of rib vaults -> supporting piers + columns thinner than Romanesque
-Outer walls reduced in thickness/eliminated due to buttresses

23

Notre-Dame Cathedral - style

Early Gothic Style

24

Notre-Dame Cathedral - function

-Maurice de Sully -> decided to build large Cathedral for Paris
-style of architect. changed as work progressed

25

Notre-Dame Cathedral - overall plan/layout

-short transept
-deep choir
-semi-circular ambulatory

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Notre-Dame Cathedral - structure

-cracks appeared
-external flying buttresses added to take outward thurst of roof + vaulting in nave

27

Notre-Dame Cathedral - exterior

-highest cathedral of its day (33m)
-aimed at impressing visitors
-2 massive towers + rose windows above main entrance portal

28

Reims Cathedral - style

Rayonnant Gothic Style

29

Reims Cathedral - bg info

-built on site of earlier cathedral
-modelled of Chartres Cathedral
-mix of styles

30

Reims Cathedral - function

-built as seat of archbishop of Reims
-most French kings crowned there
-main portal dedicated to Virgin Mary