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Flashcards in Iron Age Deck (29)
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1

Iron Age date

500 BC - 400 AD

2

Name of people

Celtic people

3

Designs

La Tène style

4

Iron Age Artefacts

1. Turoe Stone
2. Castle strange stone
3. Corleck head
4. Tandragee idol
5. Broighter collar
6. Loughnashade trumpet
7. Petrie crown

5

The Celts

-500 BC - celts from mainland Europe started settling in Ireland
-Introduced mining + working iron
-Celtic language
-Romans happy to trade, never invaded - celtic culture survived in Ireland

6

La Tène style

-Developed by Celts in Switzerland, France, Germany ~500 BC
-Influences of Greek + Etruscan plant motifs
-Style named after lakeside site at La Tène, Switzerland where Celtic artefacts were found

7

La Tène motifs

Spiral
Leaf Shape
Pelta
Scroll
Trumpet shape
Triskele
Stylized bird's head

8

Turoe Stone - Form

-Rounded Connemara granite boulder
-1.68m in height
-Deposited by a glacier
-Vertical sides + spherical top

9

Turoe Stone - Function

-Pagan rituals?
-Quality of decoration suggests importance

10

Turoe Stone - Decoration

-Stepped pattern around base
-Curvilinear La Tène decorations
-Four separate panels
-Motifs inc: leaf shapes, triskeles, spirals, circles, trumpet ends

11

Turoe Stone - Stone Carving Techniques

-Partly smoothed surface w/ iron chisels ('dressing the stone')
-Bg around motifs carved away - contrasting positive + negative shapes
-Stepped pattern around base has been incised

12

Turoe Stone example

Co. Galway

13

Loughnashade Trumpet example

Co. Armagh
found in a bog where ancient lake of Loughnashade had been found

14

Loughnashade Trumpet - Form

-Consists of mouthpiece, decorative disk around bell rim, two curved tubes joined by a ring

15

Loughnashade Trumpet - Function

-Offering to pagan gods?
-Used during pagan rituals?
-War trumpet?

16

Loughnashade Trumpet - Decoration

-Only disc is decorated
-Raised curvilinear La Tène motifs
-Disc divided symmetrically into 4 quarters (mirror images of each other)
-Spiral motifs end in raised bosses

17

Loughnashade Trumpet - Metalworking techniques

-Made from sheet bronze rolled into 2 cylinders
-Sealed lengthwise by rivets
-Attached to band of bronze on inside
-Decoration applied using repoussé

18

Broighter Hoard

Consists of Broither Collar, two gold chains, bowl of beaten sheet gold, small model boat, two twisted torcs

19

Chasing/Embossing

Opposite of repoussé. Refine front by sinking metal Eg. Petrie Crown from Iron Age

20

Broighter Collar example

Limavady, Co. Derry

21

Broighter Collar - Form

-Consists of two semicircular cylinders
-Hinge once joined two cylinders
-Two-part locking device at terminals

22

Broighter Collar - Function

-Ornamental collar worn to indicate status
-Fastened around neck by locking device
-Possibly worn for pagan rituals/going into battle
-Offering to sea god Mannanán/other deity

23

Broigther Collar - Decoration

-Curvilinear La Tène style with interlocking S-shaped scrolls + trumpet motifs
-Spirals + stylised foliage
-Textured cross hatching in bg

24

Broighter Collar - Metalworking techniques

-Rectangular gold sheets decorated using chasing technique - rolled into a cylinder + soldered together at seams
-Some of spiral-like projections soldered on
-Bg hatching incised using pointed scriber/compass tool

25

Petrie Crown example

???

26

Petrie Crown - Form

-Two linked rectangular pieces of a band, may have gone around a person's head
-Two flat circular discs in each rectangle
-Two concave circular discs attached to band at base in front
-Comical horn behind one of discs

27

Petrie Crown - Function

-Small holes on band suggest - originally stitched to leather
-Elaborate headdress?
-Fertility rituals?

28

Petrie Crown - Decoration

-Repetitive symmetrical decoration
-Crown in curvilinear La Tène style
-Red enamel stud on raised central boss of one disc
-Enamel studs/beads originally would have been placed in eyes of stylized birds' heads
-Spirals on horn, base band + two concave discs

29

Petrie Crown - Metalworking techniques

-Sheet bronze cut to shape
-Horn folded into conical shape + secured with rivets & solder
-Birds' heads have holes drilled into eyes
-Outlines raised by chasing around them