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Flashcards in Early Christian Manuscript Deck (80)
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1

Illuminated manuscripts

early books which combined text with decoration such as decorated initials or illustrations

2

Background

1. Up to 15th century, books reprod. by hand

2. No invention allowed for multiple copies of text/images

3. Limited book numbers, in possession of religious orders + v.wealthy

4. Most illiterate, depended on clerical society to produce + manage records. (Explained power church had)

5. manuscripts valuable

3

Why were manuscripts valuable?

bc of manpower + expertise used in production, materials v valuable

4

Monastic context

-Monks trained in art of manuscript illumination prod. books of religious materials

-Monks roles: text, deco of text, creation of imagery

-Created in scriptorium

5

St. Colmcille of Iona

-Monasteries founded - renowned for manuscript production

-Earliest Irish manuscript 'The Cathach', believed to be written by him

-Founded monastery of Iona, site for prod. of Book of Kells

6

Pigments and inks

-deep blue
-deep indigo
-white
-purple + mauve
-yellow
-orange
-deep red
-green
-brown/black ink
-egg white

7

Deep blue

mineral lapis lazuli, mined in Afghanistan, diff + expensive to obtain

8

Deep indigo

oriental plant

9

White

chalk white + white lead

10

Purple + mauve

litmus plant from Mediterranean

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Yellow

arsenic sulphide, create gold coloured deco

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Orange

red lead

13

Deep red

Mediterranean insect

14

Green

copper

15

Brown/black ink

mixing iron sulphate, ground apples, glue gum, water, used to write text

16

Egg white

bind pigments in Book of Kells

17

Writing tools

-pens
-brushes
-knives
-cow horns
-compasses + rulers
-templates

18

Pens

text + drawing, goose/swan feathers, nib sharpened w/ blade

19

Brushes

applying colour, wood + natural fur fibres

20

Knives

trimming vellum, scrape away mistakes

21

Cow horns

used as ink wells

22

Compasses + rulers

layout + design

23

Templates

repeat pattersn

24

Pages/folios

folio
bifolio

25

folio

1 page in a manuscript

26

bifolio

double page in a manuscript

27

pages/folios

-paper not widely used in Europe until 15th c, animal skin most popular material

-Used calfskin/vellum

-Use of vellum advantage - smooth, tough + durable in damp Irish climate

-Prep of calfskin - extremely time consuming

28

turning calfskin into vellum

-Skin dipped in lime to looser hair from hide

-scraped w/ knife

-skin stretched on frame, craftsman picked out hair

-bifolio cut out of vellum to equal scale

-marks cut w/ point of knife along edges of pages to assist ruling of pages

-pages ruled w/ ruler made of wood/bone. Layout worked out using implements (set-squares, dividers, compasses, templates)

29

subject matter

The Cathach - copy of book of psalms from old testament

Book of Durrow + Book of Kells - copy of new testament

30

decorations

diminuendo
red dot
capital letter deco
snake
peacock
lion
fish
interlace
framed pages of interlace
la tene mtoifs
geometric patterns