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1

What are some examples of disorders that can be treated with adrenergic agonists and antagonists?

1. hypertension
2. angina
3. heart failure
4. arrhythemia
5. asthma
6. migraine
7. anaphylactic reactions

2

what body hormone has little affect on B2 receptors?

Norepinephrine has little effect on beta2 receptors,
therefore it cannot cause bronchodilation, because
receptors in bronchial smooth muscle are beta2

on the other hand, epinephrine is a potent bronchodilator

3

What receptors are abundant in skin blood vessels

alpha 1 receptors

norepinephrine and epinephrine cause constriction of such vessels.

4

what receptors are found in the smooth muscle of blood vessels in skeletal muscle

both alpha 1 and and beta 2

Activation of beta2 receptors causes vasodilation.
Activation of alpha1 receptors causes vasoconstriction

5

What does a low dose of epinephrine do?

vasodilation

6

what does a high dose of epinephrine do?

vasoconstriction

7

what are the three types of adrenergic agonists?

1. direct acting
2. indirect acting
3. mixed

8

What are the three types of direct acting adrenergic agonists?

1. endogenous catecholamines

2. Beta adrenergic

3. alpha adrenergic

9

what are the three endogenous catecholamines?

1. epinephrine
2. norepinephrine
3. dopamine

10

what are the effects of epinephrine?

acts as a hormone

Increases heart rate and contractile force (beta 1 effect).

Cardiac output increases: oxygen demand of the
myocardium increases.

Increases renin release (beta 1 effect).

Constricts arterioles in skin and viscera (alpha 1 effect).

Dilates blood vessels of skeletal muscle (beta 2 effect).

Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle (beta 2 effect).

Increases liver glycogenolysis (beta 2 effect).

Increases lipolysis (alpha 1 and beta 2 effect).

11

How does a large dose of epinephrine have on blood pressure?

blood pressure is increased
1. increased venticular contraction
2. increased heart rate
3. vasoconstriction

12

How does a small dose of epinephrine have on blood pressure?

1. peripheral resistance decreases

2. systolic pressure decreases

3. heart rate increases

no mean increase in bp

13

What are the uses of epinephrine?

1. anaphylactic shock
2. acute asthmatic attack
3. cardiac arrest

14

norepinephrine is an an agonist at what receptors?

alpha 1 +2 and beta 1

little effect on beta 2

15

effects of norepinephrine?

Causes peripheral vasoconstriction (α1 effect).

Increases cardiac contractility (β1 effect).

Systemic administration of norepinephrine
increases peripheral vascular resistance, systolic
blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure.

The increase in blood pressure stimulates
baroreceptors leading to reflex bradycardia.

16

what is use for norepinephrine?

to treat shock

17

what is the baroreceptor response to increased blood pressure?

stimulates the parasympathetic activity and inhibits the sympathetic activity

decrease heart rate and decrease force of contraction

18

what is the baroreceptors response to decreased blood pressure?

inhibits parasympathetic and activates sympathetic

increased heart rate and increased force of contraction

19

isoproterenol

non selective beta 1 and 2 adrenergic agonist

20

the use of isoproterenol?

Isoproterenol may be used in emergencies to
stimulate heart rate in patients with bradycardia
or heart block.

21

Dobutamine

beta 1 selective adrenergic agonist
given by IV

22

uses for dobutamine?

Management of acute heart failure.

Management of cardiogenic shock.

23

albuterol

beta 2 adrenergic agonist

24

uses for albuterol

Causes bronchodilation (beta 2 effect).

Used in asthma.

DOC for acute asthma attacks

25

what is phenylephrine and what is it used for?

alpha 1 selective adrenergic agonist
causes vasoconstriction

use:
Nasal decongestant. Given orally or topically.
Mydriatic.

26

What is clonidine and what is it used for?

partial alpha 2 adrenergic selective agonist

centrally acting anti-hypertensive

27

What are the two indirect acting adrenergic agonists (releasing agents)?

1. amphetamine
2. tyramine

28

What is amphetamine and what is it used for?

Has central stimulatory action.

Can increase blood pressure by alpha-agonist action
on vasculature as well as beta-stimulatory effects
on heart.

USES
• ADHD
• Narcolepsy

29

Where is tyramine found?

found in fermented foods such as cheese and wine

MAO inhibitor = antidepressant

30

What is an uptake inhibitor (indirect acting adrenergic agonist)

cocaine

blocks the reuptake of monoamines

leads to monoamine accumulation in the synapse