Lecture 37 Flashcards Preview

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1

The ANS innervates what tissues?

1. smooth muscle tissue

2. heart

3. glands

2

How does the ANS effect blood vessels?

blood pressure and body temp.

3

How does the ANS impact the GI?

digestion

4

How does the ANS impact the bladder?

micturition (urination)

5

How does the ANS impact the bronchial tree?

bronchial dilation or constriction

6

how does the ANS impact the eye?

pupillary dilation or constriction

7

How does the ANS impact the heart?

heart rate and heart contractility

8

How does the ANS impact the endocrine glands such as the pancreas and ardrenal glands?

metabolism

9

how does the ANS impact the exocrine glands such as the sweat glands, salivary glands, and lacrimal glands?

lacrimination
sweating
salivation

10

What does the vagus nerve innervate?

Parasympathetic fibers Innervation of the thoracic and
abdominal viscera

11

What is a vagomoty?

a surgical operation in which one or more branches of
the vagus nerve are cut, typically to reduce the rate of gastric secretion (e.g. in treating peptic ulcers)

12

What are the characteristics of the cholinergic fibers and adrenergic fibers of the sympathetic NS?

The adrenergic fibers are much longer than the cholinergic fibers.

short cholinergic preganglionic fiber
long adrenergic postganglionic fiber

adrenergic fiber innervates the effector tissue

13

What are the characteristics of the cholinergic fibers and adrenergic fibers of the parasympathetic NS?

long cholinergic preganglionic fiber
short cholinergic postganglionic fiber

14

What is the primary neurotransmitter of the postganglionic neurons in the sympathetic?

norepinephrine

15

What is the primary neurotransmitter of the postganglionic neurons in the parasympathetic?

acetylcholine

16

What kind of fiber innervates the adrenal medulla?

Directly innervated by preganglionic sympathetic fibers.

17

What fibers innervate sweat glands?

Innervated by cholinergic sympathetic postganglionic neurons

Receptors on the sweat glands are cholinergic muscarinic: M3

18

What fibers innervate the renal vasculature smooth muscle?

Innervated by dopaminergic sympathetic postganglionic neurons

Receptors on the renal vasculature are dopaminergic: D1

19

What are chromaffin cells and where are they found?

Chromaffin cells releases catecholamines
into the CIRCULATION: 80% Epinephrine(E),
20% Norepinephrine(NE)

they are found in the adrenal gland

20

What fibers synapse with chromaffin cells?

Preganglionic sympathetic axons

21

What is pheochcromocytoma?

It is the most common tumor found in the adrenal medulla in adults

derived from chromaffin cells

22

What are the symptoms of pheochcromocytoma?

1. elevated blood pressure
2. headache
3. excessive sweating
4. tachycardia
5. pallor

23

How to determine pheochcromocytoma? (lab)

elevated catecholamines and their metabolites (metanephrine)

24

how to treat pheochcromocytoma?

surgery (Phenoxybenzamine + Beta-blocker during preop)

25

Explain the synthesis of acetylcholine?

1. Acetyl CoA synthesized in mitochondria.

2. Choline transported into the neuron terminal by
a sodium-dependent carrier (CHT1).

3. ACh is synthesized in the cytoplasm from acetyl-CoA and choline, a reaction catalysed by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT).

4. ACh transported into vesicles by a the vesicular
ACh transporter (VAChT).

5. ACh released occurs when an action potential reaches the terminal and triggers calcium influx
through voltage-gated calcium channels

26

What is the rate-limiting step of ACh synthesis?

the uptake of choline

27

Explain cholinergic transmission of acetylcholine?

1. ACh binds to cholinergic receptors: nicotinic
or muscarinic in the postsynaptic membrane

2. ACh binds to presynaptic M2 Ach receptors,
which inhibit Ach release

3. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) splits ACh into
choline and acetate

28

What happens during organophosphate poisoning?

it will irreversibly bind to the enzyme aceytlcholinesterase

29

symptoms of organophosphate poisoning?

muscarinic: diarrhea, urination, miosis, bronchospasm, bradycardia, emesis, lacrimation, sweating, salivation

Nicotinic: neuromuscular blockade

CNS effects: respiratory depression, lethargy, seizures, coma

30

How to treat organophosphate poisoning?

Atropine + Pralidoxime