DLA 25 + DLA 26 + lecture 35 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in DLA 25 + DLA 26 + lecture 35 Deck (22)
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1

What are the two functional domains of the PNS?

somatic (voluntary) and visceral (involuntary)

2

What makes up the PNS?

1. cranial nerves
2. spinal nerves
3. ganglia
4. enteric plexuses
5. sensory receptors

3

Functions of the nervous system?

1. sensory function
2. integrative function
3. motor function

4

What are motor efferent neurons?

conveys impulses to effector cells
somatic- muscle cells
visceral - cardiac muscle and glands
typically multipolar

5

What are sensory afferent neurons?

conveys impulses from receptors for integration
somatic - pain, temp, touch, pressure, proprioception
visceral - distension, ischemia, inflammation, physiological processes

typically pseudounipolar or bipolar

6

What are interneurons?

communication and integration between sensory and motor neurons, tendon reflexes

7

what are the neuroglial cells in the CNS?

1. astrocyte
2. oligodendrocytes
3. microglia
4. ependymal cells

8

What are the neuroglial cells in the PNS?

1. schwann cells
2. satellite cells

9

collection of cell bodies in the CNS?

A nucleus

10

collection of axons in the CNS?

A tract

11

collection of cell bodies in the PNS?

ganglion

12

collection of axons in the PNS?

peripheral nerve

13

What are the characteristics of sensory ganglia?

central axons
large pale staining of central nuclei
no synaptic connections
groups of pseudounipolar cell bodies

14

What are the characteristics of autonomic ganglia?

large cell bodies
random bundles of fibers
groups of multipolar cell bodies
synapsing

15

explain fibrous astrocytes?

prevalent in white matter
straight processes

16

Explain protoplasmic astrocytes?

prevalent in gray matter
branching cytoplasmic processes
maintain the BBB

17

differences between schwann cells and oligodendrocytes?

oligo = CNS and can myelinate several axons

schwann = PNS and can myelinate one axon
clean up debris

18

What do ependymal cells do?

they are cuboidal / columnar

fluid transporting / absorbing cells

found in choroid plexus

secrete CSF

19

Explain satellite cells?

small cuboidal cells

surround the cell body of neurons in the PNS

regulate the perineuronal environment

regulate metabolic exchange

20

explain the formation of myelin?

A schwann cell plasma membrane forms two
distinct polarized domains
-abaxonal plasma membrane
-adaxonal plasma membrane

The mesoaxon connects the abaxonal and
adaxonal membranes and closes off the
extracellular environment

21

What protein/gene regulates the thickness of the myelin?

neuregulin (ngr-1)

22

the types of cytoplasm found in the myelin sheath

Inner collar of Schwann cell cytoplasm- between axon and myelin

Schmidt-Lantermann clefts- small islands of cytoplasm within

lamellae of myelin

Perinodal cytoplasm at node of Ranvier

Outer collar of Schwann cell cytoplasm
- around myelin