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1

What is the definition of a drug?

any substance that when administered to a living organism, produces a biological effect.

2

What is pharmacology?

the study of how the function of living systems is affected by chemical agents

3

What is pharmacokinetics?

the study of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs

4

What is pharmacodynamics?

the study of effects of drugs and their mechanisms of action

5

What is Clinical pharmacology or Pharmacotherapeutics

the study of the use of drugs in the prevention and
treatment of disease.

6

What is toxicology?

the study of adverse effects of drugs

7

Describe how drugs target ion channels?

by altering the conductance of ion channels

8

examples of ion channel altering drugs?

local anesthetics

sedative-hypnotics

antiepileptics

9

G-protein-linked receptors and drugs

60 percent of drugs act upon G-proteins

10

Examples of drugs that use G protein linked receptors

albuterol- asthma (beta-2 agonist)

propranolol- hypertension (beta-anatagonist)

11

Example of enzyme-linked receptors?

receptor tyrosine kinase

12

What receptors are included in enzyme linked?

insulin receptor

epidermal growth factor receptor

13

What is the drug imatinib used for and what does it inhibit?

it is an effective treatment for leukemia

inhibits tyrosine kinase receptor

14

What do nuclear receptors do?

they regulate the expression of genes controlling metabolism and growth

15

What ligands bind to nuclear receptors?

steroid hormones
thyroid hormones
Vit D

16

examples of drugs that inhibit enzymes?

1. aspirin
2. ibuprofen
3. omeprazole

17

What kinds of drugs are used to treat psychiatric disorders?

drugs that interfere with neurotransmitter transporters

18

Example of an anti-cancer drug that binds to tubulin

vinblastine

arrests cells in the metaphase stage

19

What are the two types of dose-response curves?

graded and quantal

20

How is the relationship between drug concentration and effect described on a graph

a hyperbolic curve

21

What does Emax mean?

the maximal response produced by a drug

22

What does EC50 mean?

the drug concentration that produces 50 percent of the maximal effect

23

What is Bmax?

the total concentration of binding sites

24

What is kD?

the equilibrium dissociation constant

occupy half the receptors

receptors affinity for the drug

if kD is low, affinity is high vice versa

25

What is efficacy?

the magnitude of the response a drug produces

26

What is potency?

is a measure of the concentration or amount of drug necessary to produce an effect of a given magnitude

27

What is an agonist?

a drug that binds to and activates a receptor in a way that brings about an effect

affinity and efficacy

28

What is an antagonist?

inhibits the action of an agonist but has no effect in the absence of the agonist

affinity but no efficacy

29

What is used to determine potency?

EC50

30

What is receptor antagonism?

A receptor antagonist binds to the same receptor to which the agonist binds