Lec 9. Chromosome variation II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lec 9. Chromosome variation II Deck (87)
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1

What is metacentric?

centromere in the middle

2

What is submetacentric?

chromosome with somewhat smaller arm

3

What is acrocentric?

chromosome with small arm

4

What is telocentric?

chromosome with no arm

5

Which chromosomes have a satellite that can be recognized by a secondary constriction?

13,14,15,21,22

6

What does P stand for pertaining to chromosomes?

P is the short arm

7

What does q stand for pertaining to chromosomes?

q is the long arm

8

What does the satellite contain?

NOR (nucleolar organizer region)

9

What does NOR do?

Can be detected by silver staining and is a useful landmark for chromosome indentification

10

What do chromosome mutations include?

Rearrangements, aneuploids and polyploids

11

What are the three steps to karyotyping?

Chromosomes prepared from actively dividing cells. Halted in metaphase with colchicine. Chromosomes arranged according to size.

12

What are the 4 types of banding?

G,Q,C,R

13

What stain is used for G bands?

Giemsa stain

14

What stain is used for Q bands?

Quinacrine stain

15

What do C bands show?

Reveals centromeric heterochromatin

16

What do R bands show?

Region rich in C-G base pairs

17

What does G banding show?

Heterochromatin stains intensely(A-T rich) and euchromatin (G-C) stains lightly.

18

What does Q banding show?

Florescent stain for A-T rich regions

19

What does T banding show?

Telomeric banding after heat denaturation

20

What is the G-banded chromosome band resolution?

400-600

21

What phase do chromosomes need to be for G-banding?

Metaphase

22

How is chromosome painting done?

Fluorescent-tagged chromosome specific DNA sequences.

23

What is aneuploidy?

the loss or gain of chromosomes

24

What is polyploidy?

Those containing more than 2 complete paired homologous sets of chromosomes

25

What is an ex of aneuploidy?

trisomy

26

What is an ex of polyploidy?

Autotriploid

27

Chromosome rearrangements alter

chromosome structure

28

What are the 4 types of rearrangements?

Duplication,deletion,inversion,translocation

29

What does inversion mean?

a segment of chromosome is turned 180

30

What does translocation mean?

a segment of chromosome moves to another place of the same chromosome