2.11 Developmental Genetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.11 Developmental Genetics Deck (28)
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1

What are totipotent cells?

Ability of a single cell to divide and produce all of the differentiated cells in an organism

2

What are pluripotent cells?

Ability of a single cell to divide and produce SOME but not all kinds of differentiated cells in an organism

3

What are unipotent cells?

Ability of a single cell to divide and produce a single kind of a differentiated cell in an organism.

4

What are the steps used in cloning a mammal?

Extract a cell from a sheep. Remove nucleus from fertilized egg. Replace that with the nucleus of this cell (that was extracted from this full grown sheep). Gave it an electric shock (recreating signals that happen right after fertilization), the egg activated and divided. Thus turns into like IVF, implant into a fertile sheep, and it grew.

5

How is egg polarity established?

By egg-polarity genes and Polarity is determined by where the concentration gradients are.

6

What is the homeobox? How is it different from the homeodomain?

Genes that contain a highly conserved seq of nucleotides, which codes for the 60 AA homeodomain found in homeodomain transcription factor proteins.

7

What role do homeobox-containing genes play in vertebrate development?

Play a major role to cranio-caudal segmentation, in main body axis and within development of many organs.

8

Compare loss-of-function mutations to gain-of-function mutations

Loss of function mutations result in posterior to anterior transformations while the gain mutations result in anterior to posterior transformations

9

What is the organization of the human HOX complex?

Humans have 4 clusters of HOX genes.

10

Compare the HOX gene complex in mammals to that in Drosphila

HOX genes are in 4 clusters in mammals vs 1 in drosphilia. However both mammal and drosphilia HOX genes are similar in sequence, and they are in the same order.

11

What is somatic cell nuclear transfer?

laboratory strategy for creating a viable embryo from a body cell and an egg cell.

12

What is heterotaxy?

Lack of differentiation of R-sided and L-sided organs during fetal development

13

What genes establish the main body axes?

Egg-polarity genes

14

What genes determine the number and polarity of body segments?

Segmentation genes

15

What genes establish identity of each segment?

Homeotic genes

16

Pertaining to egg-polarity genes what do the maternal origin do?

Determine anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes of the embryo are initiated by mRNA from the mom.

17

What is morphogen?

a protein that affects the developmental fate of the surrounding region through a concentration gradient

18

What gene determines the dorsal-ventral axis?

Dorsal gene

19

What genes determine the anterior-posterior axis?

Bicoid gene, nanos gene, hunchback gene

20

What genes determine the anterior-posterior axis?

Bicoid gene, nanos gene, hunchback gene

21

In what direction are homeobox-containing genes activated?

3' to 5' direction

22

What are hox genes?

Encode transcription factors that help determine the identity of body regions

23

What are hox genes?

Encode transcription factors that help determine the identity of body regions

24

What is apoptosis?

Controlled, programmed cell death

25

What is necrosis?

Injured cells dying in an uncontrolled manner

26

Precise regulation of gene expression is essential for what?

Development

27

Darwins observation of finches different peaks was due to what?

Natural selection leads to environmental specialization. Peak difference was due to changes in expression levels of calmodulin

28

Mutations in homeotic genes often causes what?

Structures to appear in wrong places