Flashcards in Lab Manual - Origins and guides of arteries and veins Deck (121)
- Proximity of the aorta
- Diametric Size of the Vessel
- Effect on posing the body
- Location of the exposed area
- Practicability of establishing good drainage from corresponding veins
Consideration and Precautions for each artery and vein are based upon these things.
- Superficial or deep
- Relationship of the artery and vein to surrounding structures
- Presence or absence of branches of vessels which may be disturbed or blocked by its use.
- All incisions in arterial injection should be limited to no more than 3".
- Injection site as close to arch of the aorta as possible (center of embalming circulation).
- Center of venous drainage is the right atrium of the heart
Proximity to the aorta
The lumen of a vessel, artery, and vein will decrease in diametric size as they distance themselves from the aorta and vena cava.
Diametric size of the vessel
Some injection sites may adversely affect the positioning of the body.
- Cachexia - Femoral may be inaccessible
- Desiccation marks - Right common carotid by instruments
Effect on posing the body
After suturing an injection site, sutures may be visible.
Location of the exposed areas
Because of certain anatomical structures, bones, tendons, muscles, cartilage, etc., good drainage is often difficult to establish and maintain.
- The external iliac vein as it becomes the femoral vein when it passes through he ilium bone.
Practicability of establishing good drainage from corresponding veins
Begins at the level of the sternoclavicular articulation and terminates at the level of the superior border of the thyroid cartilage.
Right common carotid Artery
Begins at the level of the second costal cartilage and termites at the superior border of the thyroid cartilage.
Left common carotid artery
An incision is made along the posterior border of the inferior 1/3 of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The incision is thus parallel to the muscle and vessel itself.
- An incision on the surface of the skin to raise the common carotid arteries. It is made along the posterior border of the inferior 1/3 of the sternocleidomastoid muscle.
- Note: There is no logical reason to use this incision in embalming. The problems generated by this incision outweigh the benefits.
This method of incision involves the utilization of both common carotid and both internal jugular veins.
- Recommended for difficult cases
- Method of injection wherein both common carotid arteries are raised.
- Inject the right, clamp the left
- Half moon incision used historically, most embalmers prefer two separate three inch supraclavicular incisions.
Restricted Cervical method (Incision)
- Direct distribution to the face
- Close to center of venous drainage
- Close to center of embalming circulation
- Face possibly can be embalmed using the restricted cervical method with a mild solution, while remaining portion of body can be injected with a stronger solution- fluid will enter the head from vertebral arteries.
- Has no branches except its terminal branches
Considerations of the common carotid arteries
- Incision may be visible after dressing
- Tubes may leave mark on face
- Face may be over-injected on the left side when utilizing the right common carotid as an injection site and visa versa.
Precautions of the common carotid arteries
Originate at the bifurcation of the left and right common carotid arteries at the superior border of the thyroid cartilage.
- The bifurcation will occur front to back not side to side.
Internal and External Carotid Arteries
Anterior branch: Primary blood supply to the face.
External Carotid Artery
Posterior Branch: Primary blood supply to the brain.
Internal Carotid Artery
The internal Jugular vein will lie later and superficial to the common carotid artery. Therefore, the common carotid artery will lie medial and deep to the internal jugular vein.
Accompanying vein to the carotid artery
Branch of the external carotid artery that supplies blood to the cheeks and lips.
The external Facial Artery (Maxillary Artery)
Along the inferior border of the mandible just anterior to the angle of the mandible.
Anatomical Guide: External Facial Artery
Along the anatomical guide, not more than one inch in length, directly over the mandibular notch.
Place of incision: External Facial Artery
The left and right of these have different origins.
- Only raised in autopsy cases
Origin of the Subclavian Artery
- Arises from the right brachiocephalic artery
- Begins at the sternoclavicular articulation
- Terminates at the lateral border of the first rib
Anatomical limits: Right Subclavian Artery
- Arises directly from the arch of the aorta as the third branch.
- Begins at the level of the second costal cartilage
- Terminates at the lateral border of the first rib.
Left Subclavian Artery
Which is longer, the left or right subclavian artery?
Gives off 4 Branches:
1. Left and right Vertebral
2. Left and right internal mammary
3. Left and right costocervical
4. Left and right thyrocervical
Branches of the Subclavian Arteries
It is imperative that the left and right subclavian arteries be injected on these cases so that these eight arteries carry arterial fluid to the shoulders and back of the head. Of the eight arteries, the left and right vertebral are of primary importance.
Originates from the left and right subclavian arteries and terminates by forming the basilar artery in the foramen magnum.
Left and right Vertebral Arteries
Along the inferior border of the lateral one-third of the clavicle bone, exposing the vessel near its point of termination.
Place of incision: Subclavian Artery
A continuation of the subclavian artery and terminates by becoming the brachial artery.
Axillary Artery - Origin