MORS 113: Muscle Facts (Little Blue Book) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MORS 113: Muscle Facts (Little Blue Book) Deck (51)
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1

Refers to the study of the muscular system.

Myology

2

  • Make up about 45% of body weight.
  • Responsible for imparting movement to body parts.
    • Do this through the ability to contract (shorten in length).

Muscles

3

The ability to contract and cause movement.

Contractility

4

Have the ability to convert chemical energy derived from digested food products into mechanical energy, which in turn creates the contractions and movement associated with muscles.

Muscle Cells

5

May only be 1/2 to 1/3 it's normal length when at rest.

A Fully Contracted Muscle

6

Specialized nerve cells (neurons) that transmit stimuli to muscle cells.

  • Muscles do not contract on their own, they need these.

Motor Neurons

7

The combination of a motor neuron and the group of muscle cells which it stimulates.

Motor Unit

8

Generally, muscles do not act individually to create movement of a body part, but function:

In Coordination With Other Muscles

9

There is often one muscle which is largely responsible for a desired action, and it is referred to as this.

Prime Mover (Agonist)

10

Has the opposite effect of the prime mover.

Antagonist

11

In addition to creating movement, muscles also enable to body to:

Maintain Its Posture

12

Partial muscular contraction that does not create movement, but simply allows for a relatively constant amount of tension in a muscle so that it can hold a body part in its proper position.

Tonic Contraction

13

Besides creating movement and maintaing posture, muscles are also responsible for:

Heat Production in The Body

14

  1. Skeletal
  2. Smooth
  3. Cardiac

Three Basic Categories of Muscle Tissue

15

Makes up the greatest share of the muscular tissue in the human body.

  • Attaches to the bones of the skeleton and creates movement by pulling these bones.

Skeletal Muscle (Voluntary, Striated)

16

Skeletal muscle is also known as this because it can be made to contract by conscious control.

Voluntary

17

Skeletal muscle is also called this because under a microscope, this type of muscle is seen to contain dark colored stripes.

Striated

18

Found in various organs and functions "automatically."

  • Microscopically, does not have stripes (striations)
  • Found in most of the viscera - such as the stomach and intestines.

Smooth Muscle (Involuntary, Visceral, Non-Striated)

19

The kind of muscle found in the heart.

  • Has some of the characteristics found in the other two kinds of muscles.
    • Is striated and involuntary
  • Forms branches, is functionally arranged differently so that it can keep the heart beating in a rythmic fashion.

Cardiac Muscle

20

Small, dense cords of connective tissue that are responsible for attaching muscle to bone (or muscles to muscles in some cases).

  • Often cross over an articulation in order to pull on the bones forming the joint, thus bringing them toward each other.

Tendons

21

Have three main parts:

  • Origin
  • Insertion
  • Body

Voluntary (Skeletal) Muscle

22

The end of the muscle which is attached to the less moveable, or "fixed" bone.

Origin

23

The end of the muscle which is attached to the more movable bone.

Insertion

24

The fleshy portion of the muscle.

Body (Belly)

25

The origin of the muscle is normally the ____ end.

Proximal

26

The insertion of a muscle is usually the ______ end.

Distal

27

Long, cylindrical cells that are made up of tiny, thread-like structures, which in turn consist of ven finer filaments made up on specialized proteins.

Muscle Fibers

28

The tiny, thread-like stuctures within a muscle fiber.

Myofibrils

29

  • Tonic
  • Twitch
  • Tetanic
  • Isotonic
  • Isometric

Forms of Muscle Contraction

30

Rapid, jerky contractions in response to a stimulus, which play no major role in normal bodily activities.

Twitch Contractions

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