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Flashcards in Dilution, Distribution and Diffusion Deck (85)
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The dilution of the concentrated fluid with water to form the arterial fluid solution. Case analysis or pre-embalming analysis will determine the strength of the dilution. It will also determine the need for pre-injection, co-injection and water conditions, etc. Occurs in the maching.

Primary Dilution


Normally, it is the further dilution of the already diluted fluid by the fluids in the body. It is the union of the tissue juices and liquids with the arterial fluid solution to further reduce the concentration of the preservative ingredients. It occurs in the body.

Secondary Dilution


Body conditions will vary from extreme dehydration to extreme edema. Variation in the moisture content of the body will determine the variation in primary dilution.

  • Dehydrated
  • Normal 
  • Edemous

In Secondary Dilution


100 pounds of body weight will yeild 65 pounds of water.

Dehydrated Bodies in Secondary Dilution


100 pounds of body weight will yeild 75 pounds of water.

Normal bodies in Secondary Dilution


100 pounds of body weight will yeild 85 pounds of water.

Edamous Bodies in Secondary Dilution


The movement of arterial fluid solution from the point of injection throughout the arterial, capillary, and venous portions of the blood vascular system.

Fluid Distribution


  • Capillaries - 85%
  • Veins- 10%
  • Arteries- 5%

Capacity of Blood Vessels - Forced by Articulo-Mortis


  1. The movement of the fluid solution from a high pressure potential to a point of minimum resistance.
  2. The use of a fluid solution having a high diffusive power and a low viscosity. The lower the viscosity, the better the penetration.

Maximum Fluid Distribution Witout Undesirable Surface Changes is Based Upon Two Factors:


The passage of some elements of the injected arterial fluid solution from an intravascular to an extravascular position.

  • Pressure Filtration
  • Osmosis
  • Dialysis
  • Gravity Filtration

Fluid Diffusion


  1. The mechanical force or pressure provided by the injector.
  2. The internal molecular force generated by osmotic pressure.

Fluid Diffusion Results From a Combination of two Forces:


The passage through the capillary walls of arterial fluid solution because of positive intravascular pressure exerted by a pump (embalming machine), compressor or gravity against the fluid, forcing the liquid out through the tiny intracellular spaces in the capillary bed; in other words, putting fluid into the body via an embalming machine.

Pressure Filtration


The passage of solvent through a semi-permeable membrane from a dilute to a concentrated solution (fluid). When two solutions of unequal concentration are separated by a semi-permeable membrane, such as a capillary wall, the solvent molecules will move in the greatest number from the area of lower solute concentration to the area of higher solute concentration. (hypo to hyper)

  • Isotonic
  • Hypertonic
  • Hypotonic

Osmosis (Hindered Diffusion)


Solution having equal tension on both sides of the capillary wall (same osmotic pressure).

  • Example: Salt solution and blood (.9 saline solution).

Isotonic Solution


A solution having abnormally high tension or viscosity and an osmotic pressure higher than that in an isotonic solution (too thick for arterial solution).

  • Example: Topical Jelly

Hypertonic Solution


A solution having abnormally low tension or viscosity and an osmotic pressure lower than an isotonic solution (better for arterial fluids).

Hypotonic Solution


Arterial fluids injected at high pressures and rates of flow cause tissue cells to fill rapidly with a hypotonic solution, eventually causing the cells to swell and burst.

  • Examples: Puffed necks, lips and eyelds.

Danger of Hypotonic Solutions


The separation of differing substances in solution because of their differing diffusability through semi-permeable membranes. It is the process of separating crystalloids and colloids in solution by the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semi-permeable membrane. Many of the essential agents in an arterial fluid solution are dissolved crystalloids, which must depend upon the pulling power of the water molecules to carry them through the semi-permeable membranes into the tissue cells.

Dialysis (Selective Diffusion)


The intravascular (which eventually becomes extravascular) settling of fluid by gravitational force. It is the eventual downward passage of fluid solution into adjacent tissues under the influence of gravity.

Gravity Filtration


  • Fluid dye
  • Distension of superficial blood vessels
  • Blood drainage
  • Clearing of intravascular blood discolorations

Signs of Fluid Distribution


  • Dye in the tissues
  • Firming of the tissues
  • Loss of skin elacticity (beginning firming)
  • Drying of the tissues
  • Rounding of fingertips, lips, and toes
  • Mottling of the tissues (bleaching)
  • Fluorescent dye observed using "black light"

Signs of fluid Diffusion


  1. Amount of fluid to use
  2. Strength of solution
  3. Temperature of solution
  4. Pressure of Injection
  5. Rate of flow
  6. Relation to each of the above to disinfection, preservation, removal of discolorations, swelling.

Summary of all factors relative to fluid and its injection.


  1. Puncture Test
  2. Tracer Dye
  3. Fluorescent dye test

Tests for fluid distribution and diffusion


Slightly puncture tissue with a needle, then squeeze to detect fluid at the legs/toes, arms/fingers, and head (behind ear).

Puncture Test


Adding any of the commercial active dyes to the arterial fluid solution. This will be detected in the surface tissues. This is the most common method. Always inject from the femoral artery so it enters the head evenly; for highly concentrated dye, two capfuls to a tankful.

  • Active dyes are a type of this

Tracer Dyes


Detected only under ultraviolet black light; viso-balm co-injection.

Fluorescent Dye Test


  • Diminish secondary dilution
  • Remove intravascular discolorations
  • Prevent distention
  • Permit disinfection and preservation 
  • Retard postmortem decomposition.

Purpose and Importance of Drainage (List question)


  • Closed drainage technique to limit blood exposure- heart tap with a trocar
  • Use of procedure with allows control of drainage by vein tubes inserted into veins or into the right atrium by means of flexible tubes.

Drainage Procedure


  1. Short barrell trocar directly into the right atrium of the heart.
  2. Long barrell torcar directed into the right atrium of the heart from another point of entry (starting at the anterior, superior iliac spine).

Methods of Heart Tap


It is not so much the volume of solution injected into the body that counts, but the amount that actually remains there. Fluid which merely passes through the vascular system to end up in the drainage can't possibly accomplish anything in the way of preservation.

Arterial Fluid Retention

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