GENDER AND SEXUALITY: Biblical Criticism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in GENDER AND SEXUALITY: Biblical Criticism Deck (21)
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When was the authority of the Catholic Church challenged?

During the reformation of the 16th century
The Bible was becoming more widely available and read; the Bible should be the guide not the Church


Liberal theology

Developments during the nineteenth century in liberal theology- the attempt to show the relevance of religious ideas to modern life. Part of the attempt to get beyond the biblical text was the development of biblical criticism


What is biblical criticism?

The systematic and critical examination of the biblical text to find the truth expressed through the scriptures


How did theologians study the Bible?

Using higher criticism- examining how different passages and books were written and how they relate to one another
Using lower criticism- examining in detail individual passages to identify the precise meaning of the original words


Why does biblical criticism examine the original languages in which scripture was written?

To make sure that the translated words reflect the meaning that their authors intended


Why does biblical criticism look at the form of each piece of writing?

To find the context in which it should be understood


Challenges to liberal biblical criticism: Karl Barth

Swiss theologian
Challenged the liberal approach to biblical criticism in 1916
Argued that the Christian message in the Bible isn't a development of Enlightenment values
Human reason can't be used to judge scripture; scripture is the judge of human reason


Challenges to liberal biblical criticism: Origins of Literalism/Fundamentalism

Some protestant groups in the USA during the first half of the 20th century developed an emphasis on a straightforward and literal interpretation of scripture


Challenges to liberal biblical criticism

Everyone inspired by the Holy Spirit should be able to read, understand and interpret the scriptures, because God's word was clear and straightforward
Wrong to study the Bible critically because that would undermine the straightforward meaning


Challenges to liberal biblical criticism: Literalist approach

The rules which applied in first century Palestine should continue to apply today because they were accepted by early Christians


What passage in the Bible would seem to support gender equality?

'There is neither ... male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus'- Galatians


What evidence in the Bible would seem to be against gender equality?

'Wives, submit yourselves to your own husbands'- Ephesians
'Women should remain silent in the Churches'- Corinthians


Quote from 1 Timothy on women

'I do not permit a woman to teach or have authority over a man; she must be quiet'


Critical examination of 1 Timothy

Few women at the time were given formal education so may not have understood teachings
Letter written in response to a crisis in the Church at Ephesus- may have been a very specific local problem
The word translated as 'assume authority over' is the Greek word authentein. This is the only time this word occurs in the scriptures so we can't be sure of its meaning


What do Christian Egalitarians think about the issue of gender in the scriptures and early Church?

There should be no distinction between men and women when it comes to their roles in the Church


What do Christian Complementarians think about the issue of gender in the scriptures and early Church?

Men and women are of equal importance in the sight of God, but they have different and complementary roles
The RC Church tradition and teaching point towards a complementation view of the roles of men and women in the Church


The Catholic approach to gender: Natural law

People should live in a way that reflects their inherent nature
If men and women have different natures, they should take different roles in life


The Catholic approach to gender: The early Church

Pope Gelasius wrote opposing women taking part in the Eucharist


The Catholic approach to gender: Apostolic succession

Jesus only appointed men as his apostles
Apostolic succession is the idea that the bishops of the Church are consecrated in a line of succession that goes unbroken back to the apostles
In 1976 the Vatican argued that:
The ordination of women in the early church was condemned
The Church follows Christ himself in choosing only men for his ministry
Jesus showed a high view of women which nevertheless excludes them from leadership in the Church


The Protestant approach to gender: the priesthood of all believers

All are equal before God
No one vocation is any more sacred than any other


The social and legal status of women today

In the UK it is illegal to discriminate against women in terms of employment
In politics women have held senior roles