Flashcards in GENDER AND SEXUALITY: Biblical Criticism Deck (21)
When was the authority of the Catholic Church challenged?
During the reformation of the 16th century
The Bible was becoming more widely available and read; the Bible should be the guide not the Church
Developments during the nineteenth century in liberal theology- the attempt to show the relevance of religious ideas to modern life. Part of the attempt to get beyond the biblical text was the development of biblical criticism
What is biblical criticism?
The systematic and critical examination of the biblical text to find the truth expressed through the scriptures
How did theologians study the Bible?
Using higher criticism- examining how different passages and books were written and how they relate to one another
Using lower criticism- examining in detail individual passages to identify the precise meaning of the original words
Why does biblical criticism examine the original languages in which scripture was written?
To make sure that the translated words reflect the meaning that their authors intended
Why does biblical criticism look at the form of each piece of writing?
To find the context in which it should be understood
Challenges to liberal biblical criticism: Karl Barth
Challenged the liberal approach to biblical criticism in 1916
Argued that the Christian message in the Bible isn't a development of Enlightenment values
Human reason can't be used to judge scripture; scripture is the judge of human reason
Challenges to liberal biblical criticism: Origins of Literalism/Fundamentalism
Some protestant groups in the USA during the first half of the 20th century developed an emphasis on a straightforward and literal interpretation of scripture
Challenges to liberal biblical criticism
Everyone inspired by the Holy Spirit should be able to read, understand and interpret the scriptures, because God's word was clear and straightforward
Wrong to study the Bible critically because that would undermine the straightforward meaning
Challenges to liberal biblical criticism: Literalist approach
The rules which applied in first century Palestine should continue to apply today because they were accepted by early Christians
What passage in the Bible would seem to support gender equality?
'There is neither ... male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus'- Galatians
What evidence in the Bible would seem to be against gender equality?
'Wives, submit yourselves to your own husbands'- Ephesians
'Women should remain silent in the Churches'- Corinthians
Quote from 1 Timothy on women
'I do not permit a woman to teach or have authority over a man; she must be quiet'
Critical examination of 1 Timothy
Few women at the time were given formal education so may not have understood teachings
Letter written in response to a crisis in the Church at Ephesus- may have been a very specific local problem
The word translated as 'assume authority over' is the Greek word authentein. This is the only time this word occurs in the scriptures so we can't be sure of its meaning
What do Christian Egalitarians think about the issue of gender in the scriptures and early Church?
There should be no distinction between men and women when it comes to their roles in the Church
What do Christian Complementarians think about the issue of gender in the scriptures and early Church?
Men and women are of equal importance in the sight of God, but they have different and complementary roles
The RC Church tradition and teaching point towards a complementation view of the roles of men and women in the Church
The Catholic approach to gender: Natural law
People should live in a way that reflects their inherent nature
If men and women have different natures, they should take different roles in life
The Catholic approach to gender: The early Church
Pope Gelasius wrote opposing women taking part in the Eucharist
The Catholic approach to gender: Apostolic succession
Jesus only appointed men as his apostles
Apostolic succession is the idea that the bishops of the Church are consecrated in a line of succession that goes unbroken back to the apostles
In 1976 the Vatican argued that:
The ordination of women in the early church was condemned
The Church follows Christ himself in choosing only men for his ministry
Jesus showed a high view of women which nevertheless excludes them from leadership in the Church
The Protestant approach to gender: the priesthood of all believers
All are equal before God
No one vocation is any more sacred than any other